|Parte de uma série de artigos relacionados com|
| Pontos de vista políticos |
Última vontade e testamento
| Carreira militar |
Ascensão ao poder
World War II
Tentativas de assassinato
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| Braunau am Inn |
Chancelaria do Reich
| Saúde |
Pontos de vista religiosos
Animais de estimação
| Biblioteca particular |
Globo de Hitler
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Na cultura popular
Der Sieg des Glaubens
Triunfo da Vontade
Hitler: os últimos dez dias
The Meaning of Hitler
| Eva Braun (esposa) |
Alois Jr. (meio-irmão)
Alemanha nazista, oficialmente o Grande Reich Alemão ou o Terceiro Reich,  é o nome comumente usado para se referir ao estado da Alemanha 1933-1945, quando foi uma ditadura totalitária governada por Adolf Hitler e seu Partido Nazista .
Em 30 de janeiro de 1933, Adolf Hitler tornou-se legalmente a chanceler da Alemanha , nomeado pelo Presidente Paul von Hindenburg . Embora inicialmente liderou um governo de coalizão , ele rapidamente fez uma figura Hindenburg e eliminou o seu não-nazista parceiros. O regime nazista restaurado a prosperidade econômica e terminou em massa de desemprego usando pesados ??gastos militares, enquanto suprimindo os sindicatos e greves . O retorno da prosperidade deu a popularidade enorme regime e fez sua regra na maior parte incontestável, embora a resistência cresceu após o início da agressão militar, culminando na falha trama 20 de julho de 1944. A Gestapo (polícia secreta do estado), sob Heinrich Himmler destruiu a oposição, liberal e socialista e comunista perseguiu os judeus , tentando forçá-los para o exílio, tendo a sua propriedade. O partido assumiu o controle dos tribunais, o governo local, e todas as organizações cívicas, exceto as igrejas protestantes e católicos.  Todas as expressões da opinião pública foram controlados pela propaganda de Hitler ministro, Joseph Goebbels , que fez uso efetivo de comícios filme, em massa, e hábil de Hitler oratória . 
O estado nazista Hitler idolatrado como seu Führer ("Leader"), centralizando todo o poder em suas mãos . Propaganda nazista centrado em Hitler e foi bastante eficaz em criar o que os historiadores chamam de "mito Hitler" - que Hitler era todo-sábio e que quaisquer erros ou falhas por outros seria corrigido quando levados ao seu conhecimento. Na realidade, Hitler tinha uma estreita faixa de interesses e de tomada de decisão foi difundida entre sobrepostos, feuding centros de poder; em algumas questões que ele foi passivo, simplesmente concordar com pressões de quem quer que teve sua orelha. Todos os funcionários de topo ainda relatou a Hitler e seguido suas políticas básicas, mas eles tinham uma autonomia considerável em uma base diária. 
A política externa de Hitler durante a década de 1930 usou uma estratégia diplomática de fazer exigências aparentemente razoável, ameaçando guerra se não fossem atendidas. Quando os adversários tentaram acalmar ele, ele aceitou os ganhos que foram oferecidos, em seguida, mudou-se para seu próximo objetivo. Essa estratégia agressiva funcionou como a Alemanha saiu da Liga das Nações (1933), rejeitou o Tratado de Versalhes e começou a re-braço (1935), ganhou de volta o Saar (1935), remilitarized da Renânia (1936), formaram uma aliança ( " eixo "), com Benito Mussolini 's Itália (1936), enviou ajuda militar massiva de Francisco Franco na Guerra Civil Espanhola (1936-39), anexa a Áustria no Anschluss (1938), assumiu a Checoslováquia após o apaziguamento britânico e francês do Acordo de Munique de 1938, formou um pacto de paz com a União Soviética ( Pacto Molotov-Ribbentrop ) em agosto de 1939 e, finalmente, invadiu a Polônia em setembro de 1939. Grã-Bretanha ea França declararam guerra, resultando no início da II Guerra Mundial -. um pouco mais cedo do que os nazistas tinham preparado para esperar ou  
Durante a guerra, a Alemanha conquistou ou controlava a maior parte da Europa e Norte da África , com a intenção de estabelecer uma " Nova Ordem "na Europa e em outros lugares do nazismo alemão completa hegemonia . Os nazistas também perseguiram e mataram milhões de judeus , ciganos e outros no Holocausto . Apesar de sua aliança do Eixo com outras nações, principalmente Itália e Japão , por 08 maio de 1945 a Alemanha havia sido derrotada pelos Forças Aliadas , e foi ocupada pela União Soviética, os Estados Unidos, Grã-Bretanha e França. Cerca de 40 milhões de europeus podem ter morrido em conseqüência da guerra. 
Hitler, os nazistas e seus Holocausto se tornou o símbolo do mal no mundo moderno. Newman e Erber (2002) escreve: "Os nazistas se tornaram uma das imagens mais reconhecidas do mal moderno. Durante a maior parte do mundo de hoje, o conceito de mal pode facilmente ser evocado com a exibição quase cue qualquer reminiscência do nazismo ... . " 
Nome e as fronteiras
O nome mais popular para se referir a este estado em Inglês é a Alemanha nazista ( alemão : Nazideutschland), usado principalmente para diferenciá-lo de outros estados alemães históricos, como a Alemanha Imperial ea Alemanha de Weimar (embora haja continuidade jurídica direta entre a Weimar e períodos de nazista , veja abaixo) Terceiro Reich (em alemão:. Drittes Reich) é um outro termo comum, mas informal, sugerindo uma sucessão histórica a partir da medieval Sacro Império Romano (962-1806) e ao moderno Império Alemão (1871-1918). Este termo, embora no uso comum entre muitos alemães na época, eventualmente, caiu em desgraça com as autoridades nazistas, que proibiu seu uso continuado por parte da imprensa, no verão de 1939.  A Alemanha tinha dois nomes oficiais durante o período nazista; Reich alemão (em alemão: Deutsches Reich), que estava em uso a partir da unificação da Alemanha em 1871 em diante até 1943, quando o regime legalmente renomeou Grande Reich Alemão (em alemão: Großdeutsches Reich).
As fronteiras nacionais da Alemanha, em 1933 foram aqueles mapeados pelos vencedores, em Primeira Guerra Mundial , no Tratado de Versalhes (1919). Ao norte, a Alemanha foi limitada pelo Mar do Norte , Dinamarca , eo Mar Báltico , a leste, foi dividido em dois e limitado a Lituânia , a Cidade Livre de Danzig , Polônia e Tchecoslováquia ; ao sul, fronteira com a Áustria e Suíça , ea oeste, que tocou França, Luxemburgo , Bélgica , a Holanda , e do Sarre . Essas fronteiras mudou depois que a Alemanha recuperou o controle do Sarre, transformou-se em Grande Alemanha anexando a Áustria, e também ganhou o controle da região dos Sudetos , o restante da Boémia e Morávia , eo Território Memel antes da guerra. Alemanha expandiu ainda mais, aproveitando a terra ainda mais durante a Segunda Guerra Mundial , que começou em setembro de 1939.
Alemanha nazista surgiu na esteira da vergonha nacional, embaraço, raiva e ressentimento resultante do Tratado de Versalhes (1919),  que ditou, para os alemães derrotados, a responsabilidade pela:
- Aceitação da Alemanha de admissão e exclusiva responsabilidade por causar a I Guerra Mundial 
- A perda permanente de vários territórios ea desmilitarização do território alemão outros 
- O pagamento das indenizações pela Alemanha pesado, em dinheiro e em espécie, tais pagamentos, sendo justificados na visão dos Aliados pela cláusula Culpa de Guerra 
- Desarmamento alemão unilateral e severas restrições militares 
Outras condições promovendo a ascensão do Terceiro Reich incluem nacionalismo e pan-germanismo , distúrbios civis atribuídas a marxista grupos, a hiperinflação da República de Weimar , o global Grande Depressão dos anos 1930, a reação contra o contador tradicionalismo e liberalismo da República de Weimar ea ascensão do comunismo na Alemanha, ou seja, o crescimento do Partido Comunista da Alemanha (KPD). Muitos eleitores, buscando uma saída para suas frustrações e uma expressão para seu repúdio da democracia parlamentar que surgiu incapaz de manter um governo no poder por mais de alguns meses, começou a apoiar extrema-direita e extrema esquerda da ala partidos políticos, optando por extremistas políticos como o Partido Nazista.
Os nazistas prometeu forte, autoritário do governo, em vez de republicanismo parlamentares effete, paz cívica, a política econômica radical (incluindo o pleno emprego), restaurou o orgulho nacional (principalmente por repudiar o Tratado de Versalhes), ea limpeza racial, parcialmente implementada através da supressão ativa de judeus e marxistas, tudo em nome da unidade nacional e da solidariedade, em vez de as divisões partidárias da democracia, ea divisão de classe social do marxismo. Os nazistas prometeu renovação nacional e cultural baseada em võlkisch movimento tradicionalismo e rearmamento proposta, o repúdio de reparação e recuperação de territórios perdidos para o Tratado de Versalhes.
O Partido Nazista afirmava que através do Tratado, a República de Weimar democracia liberal , o traidor "criminosos de Novembro" tinha se rendido o orgulho nacional da Alemanha pela inspiração e conivente dos judeus, cujo objetivo era nacional subversão eo envenenamento de sangue alemão.  para estabelecer que a interpretação da história alemã recente, propaganda nazista efetivamente utilizada a Dolchstosslegende (" Stab-in-the-back lenda ") explicando o fracasso militar alemã.
De 1925 a 1930, o governo alemão evoluiu de uma democracia de facto um conservador-nacionalista autoritário Estado sob herói de guerra-presidente Paul von Hindenburg , que não gostava da democracia liberal da República de Weimar e queria fazer a Alemanha em um Estado autoritário.  O aliado natural para o estabelecimento de autoritarismo foi o alemão Nacional do Partido Popular (Deutschnationale Volkspartei, DNVP), "os nacionalistas", mas depois de 1929, com a economia alemã se debatendo, os nacionalistas mais radicais e mais jovens foram atraídos para a natureza revolucionária da Partido Nacional Socialista, para desafiar o apoio crescente popular para o comunismo. Além disso, os partidos políticos da classe média perdeu apoio como os eleitores agregados à esquerda e à direita asas do espectro político alemão, fazendo um governo de maioria parlamentar em um sistema ainda mais difícil.
Na eleição federal de 1928 , quando a economia tinha melhorado após a hiperinflação do período 1922-1923, os nazistas conquistaram apenas 12 cadeiras. Dois anos depois, na eleição federal de 1930 , meses após o crash da bolsa dos EUA, o Partido Nazista conquistou 107 lugares, progredindo de nono-rated grupo dissidente a segunda maior partido parlamentar no Reichstag . Após a eleição federal de 1932 , os nazistas foram o maior partido no Reichstag, segurando 230 assentos.  Presidente Hindenburg estava relutante para conferir poder executivo substancial para Hitler, mas o ex-chanceler Franz von Papen e Hitler concorded um partido NSDAP-DNVP aliança que permitiria chancelaria de Hitler, sujeitos a tradicional conservadora de controle, para desenvolver um Estado autoritário. No caso, Hitler exigiu de forma consistente a ser nomeado chanceler em troca de Hindenburg está recebendo todo o apoio do Partido Nazista dos armários nomeado sob a sua autoridade.
Em 30 de janeiro de 1933, Hindenburg nomeou Hitler como chanceler da Alemanha depois que o general Kurt von Schleicher 's fracasso em formar um governo viável (ver Machtergreifung ). Hitler pressionou Hindenburg através de seu filho Oskar von Hindenburg e através de intrigas, von Papen, ex-líder da Igreja Católica Partido do Centro . [ carece de fontes? ] Ao tornar-se Vice-Reitor e manter os nazistas uma minoria gabinete, von Papen deve ser capaz de controlar Hitler . Apesar de os nazistas tinham ganhado a maior percentagem do voto popular nos dois Reichstag eleições gerais de 1932, não tinham maioria dos seus próprios, nem sequer com a aliança NSDAP-DNVP que começou a governar em 1933 pelo Decreto Presidencial acordo com o artigo 48 da 1919 Constituição de Weimar . 
O tratamento nacional-socialista dos judeus nos primeiros meses de 1933 marcou o primeiro passo em um processo de longo prazo de removê-los da sociedade alemã.  Este plano foi no centro de Adolf Hitler "s" revolução cultural ". [ 21]
Consolidação do poder
Em menos de dois anos, o novo governo rapidamente instalado uma ditadura totalitária, na Alemanha com as medidas legais que estabeleçam um governo coordenada central, (ver Gleichschaltung ). Na noite de 27 de fevereiro de 1933, o Reichstag prédio foi incendiado (os holandeses conselho comunista Marinus van der Lubbe foi encontrado dentro, ele foi preso, acusado de incêndio criminoso, julgado e, em seguida, decapitado.). O fogo provocou imediatamente a resposta de milhares de anarquistas, socialistas e comunistas em todo o Reich, descrevendo disse que o discurso livre de exercícios como a insurreição, os nazistas presos muitos no campo de concentração de Dachau . O público preocupados que o fogo tinha sido um sinal significava para iniciar a revolução comunista na Alemanha, como em 1919, para os nazistas exploraram o incêndio com o Decreto de incêndio do Reichstag (27 de Fevereiro de 1933), ab-rogação mais alemã das liberdades civis, incluindo habeas corpus , para assim reprimir os seus opositores.
Em março de 1933, com a Lei Habilitante , votou 444-94 (os democratas restantes Social), o Reichstag mudou a Constituição de Weimar para permitir que o governo de Hitler para aprovar leis no âmbito de um período de quatro anos, mesmo tais desviando de outros artigos na Constituição ( a Lei, formando a base jurídica para o regime, foi posteriormente renovada pelo governo de Hitler em 1937 e 1941). Imediatamente, ao longo de 1934, o Partido Nazista impiedosamente eliminados todos os políticos da oposição, a Lei Habilitante já havia proibido os comunistas (KPD), os social-democratas (SPD) foram proibidos em junho, apesar de apaziguar Hitler, e no período junho-julho, o nacionalistas (DNVP), o Partido Popular (DVP) e do Partido Estado alemão (DStP) foram igualmente obrigados a debandar, exortou seus membros a aderir ao Partido Nazista ou então deixar a política. Além disso, a pedido de Franz von Papen , os restantes Partido do Centro Católico dissolvida em 05 de julho de 1933, após obtenção de garantias nazista para a educação religiosa católica e grupos de jovens. Em 14 de julho de 1933, a Alemanha se tornou um de facto estado de partido único , como a fundação de novos partidos foi proibido. Novas eleições no final de 1933 , 1936 e 1938 foram totalmente controlados pelos nazistas e só viu os nazistas e um número menor de independentes "convidados" (como Hugenberg ) eleito para o carimbo- legislatura. 
No estabelecimento do Reich Drittes, o regime nazista aboliu os símbolos da República de Weimar, incluindo a bandeira tricolor preto-vermelho-ouro, e adotou novos e antigos simbolismo imperial que representa a natureza dual do império terceiro da Alemanha. O anterior, tricolor preto-branco-vermelho imperial, principalmente em desuso pela República de Weimar, foi restaurado como um dos dois oficiais da Alemanha bandeiras nacionais, o segundo foi a bandeira da suástica do partido nazista que se tornou a única bandeira nacional alemã em 1935. O hino nacional permaneceu Deutschland über Alles (aka o Alemães , "Song of Germany"), mas apenas a primeira estrofe foi cantada, imediatamente seguido pelo hino nazista Horst-Wessel-Lied ("Canção de Horst Wessel"), acompanhada pela saudação nazista .
Em 30 de janeiro de 1934, o chanceler Hitler o poder do governo formalmente centralizado para si mesmo com o Gesetz über den Neuaufbau des Reichs (Lei reconstruir o Reich) por dissolução Länder (federais, estaduais) parlamentos e transferir os direitos dos estados e administração para o governo central de Berlim. A centralização começou logo após a promulgação Lei março 1933 Habilitação, quando os governos estaduais foram substituídos por Reichsstatthalter (Reich governadores). O governo local também foi deposto; Reich governadores nomeados prefeitos de cidades e vilas com populaces de menos de 100.000, o ministro do Interior nomeado os prefeitos de cidades com populaces superior a 100.000, e, nos casos de Berlim e Hamburgo (e Viena após o Anschluss Österreichs em 1938), Hitler tinha discrição pessoal de nomear os seus prefeitos.
Até à Primavera de 1934, apenas o Reichswehr permaneceu independente do controle do governo; tradicionalmente, era separado do governo nacional, uma entidade discreta política. O paramilitar nazista Sturmabteilung (SA, "Destacamento Storm") tinha esperado para assumir o comando das forças armadas alemãs e absorver o Reichswehr muito menor (Exército alemão) em suas fileiras com Ernst Röhm liderança 's.  O Reichswehr oposição ambição Röhm é; Além disso, Röhm também teve como objetivo lançar a "revolução socialista" para complementar a "revolução nacionalista" ocorreu com a ascensão política de Hitler ao governo alemão. Industriais, que forneceram fundos para a vitória nazista, estavam descontentes com os objetivos socialistas Röhm e cansado de SA violência política. Questões vieram à tona em junho de 1934, quando o presidente Hindenburg, que teve a completa lealdade do Exército, informou Hitler que, se ele não se moveu para conter a SA Hindenburg, em seguida, iria dissolver o Governo e declarar a lei marcial . 
Correndo o risco de aparecer para falar bobagem, eu vos digo que o movimento nazista vai continuar por 1.000 anos! ... Não se esqueça de como as pessoas riram de mim, 15 anos atrás, quando eu declarei que um dia eu iria governar a Alemanha. Eles riem agora, assim como tolamente, quando eu declaro que permanecerá no poder!-Adolf Hitler a um correspondente britânico em Berlim, junho de 1934, 
Poder absoluto apenas na teoria, sem o apoio da Reichswehr, e querendo preservar boas relações com ambos exército e certos políticos e industriais, Hitler ordenou a Schutzstaffel (SS) e da Gestapo para assassinar seus inimigos políticos dentro e fora do Nazi festa com a " Noite das Facas Longas ". Os expurgos de Ernst Röhm, seu comparsa SA, a Strasserist , de esquerda nazistas, e outros inimigos políticos durou de 30 junho - 2 julho 1934.  Enquanto alguns alemães ficaram chocados com o assassinato, muitos outros viram Hitler como um que restaurou a "ordem" para o país. 
Após a morte de Hindenburg, em 02 de agosto de 1934, o Reichstag Nazi-controlada consolidada nos escritórios da Reichspräsident (Reich Presidente) e Reichskanzler (Chanceler do Reich), e reinstalado Adolf Hitler como Führer und Reichskanzler (Líder e Chanceler do Reich). Somente após a "Noite das Facas Longas" ea morte de Hindenburg fez a Reichswehr seguir Hitler. Isto é em parte porque o Sturmabteilung (multi-milhão de homens) foi maior do que o exército alemão (limitado a 100 mil soldados pelo Tratado de Versalhes) e porque os líderes SA procurou primeiro subsumir a Reichswehr para o SA e, em seguida, lançar o socialista nazista revolução. O assassinato de Röhm e os líderes SA fixa a posição s como as forças armadas único do Reich, eo Führer "do Reichswehr a expansão imperial promete lhe garantiu a lealdade militar. A morte de Hindenburg facilitado mudar o juramento dos soldados alemães "de fidelidade do Reich da Constituição alemã de fidelidade pessoal a Adolf Hitler. 
No evento, os nazistas terminou a aliança oficial do governo NSDAP-DNVP e começou a introduzir o nazismo e simbolismo nazista para a vida pública e privada alemã; livros foram revistos , ou reescrito para promover o Pan-alemão doutrina racista do Großdeutschland (Grande Alemanha) para ser estabelecido pelo Nazi Herrenvolk ; professores que se opunham nazificação curricular foram demitidos. Além disso, para coagir a obediência popular para o estado, os nazistas criaram a Gestapo (polícia secreta do estado) como independente da autoridade civil. A Gestapo controlavam o povo alemão com cerca de 100.000 espiões e informantes, assim, estavam cientes do anti-Nazi crítica e de oposição.
Feliz com a prosperidade nazista, a maioria dos alemães permaneceu obediente, [ pesquisa original? ] [ quando? ], enquanto os adversários políticos, especialmente os comunistas, marxistas e internacionais socialistas foram presos; "entre 1933 e 1945, mais de 3 milhões de alemães estavam em campos de concentração ou prisão, por razões políticas ".    "Dezenas de milhares de alemães foram mortos por uma ou outra forma de resistência . Entre 1933 e 1945, Sondergerichte (Nazi "tribunais especiais") matou 12 mil alemães , cortes marciais matou 25.000 soldados alemães, e justiça civil matou 40 mil alemães. Muitos destes alemães faziam parte do governo, civil, ou o serviço militar, circunstância que lhes permitiu participar de subversão e conspiração, enquanto envolvidos, marginalmente ou significativamente , nas políticas do governo. " 
World War II
Conquista da Europa
O " Danzig crise "atingiu seu pico no início de 1939, na época em que os relatórios de controvérsia na Cidade Livre de Danzig aumentado, o Reino Unido "garantido" para defender a integridade territorial da Polônia e os poloneses rejeitou uma série de ofertas pela Alemanha nazista em relação tanto a Cidade Livre de Danzig eo Corredor Polonês . Então, os alemães romperam relações diplomáticas. Hitler tinha aprendido que a União Soviética estava disposta a assinar um pacto de não agressão com a Alemanha e apoiaria um ataque à Polônia. Alemanha invadiu a Polônia em 1 de setembro de 1939 e dois dias depois, o Reino Unido ea França declararam guerra à Alemanha. Guerra Mundial II estava em andamento, mas a Polônia caiu rapidamente, como os soviéticos atacaram em 17 de Setembro. O Reino Unido continuou a bombardear Wilhelmshaven , Cuxhaven ,  Heligoland  e em outras áreas. Ainda assim, além de batalhas no mar, nenhuma outra atividade ocorreu. Assim, a guerra tornou-se conhecida como a " Guerra Falsa ".
O ano 1940 começou com pouco mais do que o Reino Unido lançar folhetos de propaganda sobre Praga e Viena  , mas um ataque alemão sobre a frota britânica Seas alta foi seguido pelos bombardeios britânicos da cidade portuária de Sylt .  Após o incidente Altmark off da costa da Noruega e da descoberta dos planos do Reino Unido para cercar a Alemanha, Hitler enviou tropas para a Dinamarca e Noruega . Este salvaguardados fornecimento de minério de ferro da Suécia em águas costeiras. Pouco tempo depois, os britânicos e franceses desembarcaram em Mid- e Norte da Noruega , mas os alemães derrotados de facto estas forças que se seguiu na campanha norueguesa .
Em maio de 1940, a Guerra Falsa terminou. Contra a vontade dos seus conselheiros, Hitler ordenou um ataque à França através do Países Baixos . A Batalha da França terminou com uma esmagadora vitória alemã. No entanto, com os britânicos recusam oferta de Hitler de paz, a guerra continuou.   Alemanha e Grã-Bretanha continuou a lutar no mar e no ar. No entanto, em 24 de agosto, dois fora de curso bombardeiros alemães bombardearam acidentalmente Londres -. Contra as ordens de Hitler, mudando o curso da guerra  Em resposta ao ataque, os ingleses bombardearam Berlim , que enviou Hitler em uma raiva. O líder alemão ordenou ataques contra as cidades britânicas, e no Reino Unido foi bombardeada pesadamente durante a Blitz .  Esta mudança de direcionamento prioritário interferiu com a Luftwaffe 's objectivo de alcançar a superioridade aérea sobre a Grã-Bretanha necessárias para uma invasão e permitiram as defesas aéreas britânicas para reconstruir a sua força e continuar a luta.
Hitler esperava para quebrar o moral britânico e ganhar a paz. No entanto, o britânico se recusou a recuar, eventualmente, Hitler cancelou a Batalha da Inglaterra campanha de bombardeio estratégico em favor da invasão há muito planejada da União Soviética: a Operação Barbarossa . Alemanha e seus aliados invadiram a União Soviética em 22 de junho de 1941. Na véspera da invasão, ex-vice-Hitler, Rudolf Hess , tentou negociar os termos de paz com o Reino Unido em uma reunião não-oficial privado após aterrissagem forçada na Escócia. Por outro lado, Hitler esperava que o sucesso rápido na União Soviética levaria a Grã-Bretanha à mesa de negociações.
Operação Barbarossa deveria começar mais cedo do que ele fez, no entanto, falhou empreendimentos italiano em África do Norte e os Bálcãs preocupados Hitler. Em fevereiro de 1941, o alemão Afrika Korps foi enviado à Líbia para ajudar os italianos e segure o British Commonwealth forças da Grã-Bretanha, realizada no Egito. As the North African Campaign continued, in spite of orders to remain on the defensive, the Afrika Korps regained lost Italian territory, pushed the British back across the desert and advanced into Egypt. In April, the Germans launched the invasion of Yugoslavia to aid friendly forces and restore order in the midst of what was believed to be a British-supported coup. This was followed by the Battle of Greece , again to bail out the Italians, and the Battle of Crete . Because of the diversions in North Africa and the Balkans, the Germans were not able to launch Barbarossa until late in June. Moreover, men and material were diverted to create the "fortified Europe" that Hitler wanted before Germany focused its attention on the East.
Nevertheless, Barbarossa began with great success. Only Hitler worried that the German Army and its allies were not advancing into the Soviet Union fast enough. By December 1941, the Germans and their allies were at the gates of Moscow ; to the north, troops had reached Leningrad and surrounded the city. [ 41 ] Meanwhile, Germany and its allies controlled almost all of mainland Europe, with the exception of neutral Switzerland , Sweden , Spain, Portugal , Liechtenstein , Andorra , Vatican City and Monaco .
On 11 December 1941, four days after the Japanese bombed Pearl Harbor , Nazi Germany declared war on the United States. Not only was this a chance for Germany to strengthen its ties with Japan, but after months of anti-German hysteria in the American media and Lend-Lease aid to Britain, the leaking of Rainbow Five and the foreboding content of President Franklin D. Roosevelt 's Pearl Harbor speech made it clear to Hitler that the US could not be kept neutral. Moreover, Germany's policy of appeasement towards the US, designed to keep the US out of the war, was a burden to Germany's war effort. Germany had refrained from attacking American convoys, even if they were bound for the United Kingdom or the Soviet Union. By contrast, after Germany declared war on the US, the German navy began unrestricted submarine warfare , using U-boats to attack ships without warning.
The goal of Germany's navy, the Kriegsmarine , was to cut off Britain's supply line. Under these circumstances, one of the most famous naval battles in history took place, with the German battleship Bismarck , Germany's largest and most powerful warship, attempting to break out into the Atlantic and raid supply ships heading for Britain. Bismarck was sunk – but not before sending Britain's largest warship, the battlecruiser HMS Hood , to the depths of the ocean. German U-boats were more successful than surface raiders like Bismarck . However, Germany failed to make submarine production a top priority early on and by the time it did, the British and their allies were developing the technology and strategies to neutralize it. Furthermore, in spite of the submarines' early success in 1941 and 1942, material shortages in Britain failed to fall to their World War I levels. The Allied victory in the Battle of the Atlantic was achieved at a huge cost: between 1939 and 1945, 3,500 Allied ships were sunk (gross tonnage 14.5 million) at a cost of 783 German U-boats. [ 42 ]
Persecution and extermination campaigns
The persecution of racial, ethnic, and social minorities and "undesirables" continued in Germany and the occupied countries. From 1941, Jews were required to wear a yellow badge in public; most were kept in walled ghettos , where they remained isolated from the general populace. In January 1942, the Wannsee Conference , headed by Reinhard Heydrich (direct subordinate of Reichsführer-SS Heinrich Himmler ), redacted the plans for the " Final Solution of the Jewish Question" ( Endlösung der Judenfrage ). From then until the end of the war some six million Jews and many others, including Slavs, homosexuals and political prisoners, were systematically killed. In addition, more than ten million people were put into forced labour. In 1978, the term " Holocaust " came into general use to describe this genocide in English. It is called the Shoah in Hebrew . Thousands were shipped daily to concentration - and extermination camps . [ citation needed ]
Parallel to the Holocaust, the Nazis executed the Generalplan Ost (General Plan East) for the conquest, ethnic cleansing , and exploitation of the populaces of the captured Soviet and Polish territories; some 13.7 million Soviet civilians (including Jews & 2.0 million deaths in the annexed territories which are also included with Poland's war dead). [ 43 ] and 2.5 million non-Jewish Polish citizens [ 44 ] died as a result of warfare, genocide, reprisals, forced labor or famine. The Nazis' aggressive war for Lebensraum (Living space) in eastern Europe was waged “to defend Western Civilization against the Bolshevism of subhumans”. Estimates indicate that, had the Nazis won the war and established the New Order , they would have deported some 51 million Slavs from Central and Eastern Europe to western Siberia. [ 45 ] Because of the atrocities suffered under Joseph Stalin , many Ukrainians, Balts , and other oppressed nationalities, fought for the Nazis. The populaces of Nazi-occupied Soviet Russia who racially qualified as of the Aryan race, or had no immediate Jewish ancestors, were not persecuted, and often were recruited to the Waffen Schutzstaffel ( Waffen-SS ) divisions.
Eventually, the Nazi regime meant to Germanize the racially acceptable volk (ethnic groups) of occupied eastern Europe, with the rest to be exterminated. [ 46 ] Parts of the plan were implemented in Polish areas annexed by Nazi Germany , with the classification of Poles on the Nazi Volksliste , according to their racial characteristics . [ 47 ] People classified as Germans who resisted were sent to concentration camps. [ 48 ] Those who were not classified as Germans were expelled . [ 49 ] Ethnic Germans from the Baltic states were encouraged to leave them , and were settled in Poland in the houses of the expelled Poles. [ 50 ] These, and the Poles classified as Germans, were subjected to programs to Germanize them. [ 51 ] Children were also abducted from Eastern Europe for Germanization. [ 52 ]
In early 1942, the Red Army counter-attacked, and, by winter's end, the Wehrmacht were no longer immediately outside Moscow. Yet the Germans and their fascist allies held a strong line, and, in the spring, launched a major attack against the petroleum fields of the Caucasus and the Volga River in south Russia. That established the conditions for the definitive Nazi–Soviet confrontation, the Battle of Stalingrad (17 July 1942 – 2 February 1943), wherein Germany and its allies were defeated. After winning a major tank battle at Kursk -Orel in July 1943, the Red Army progressed west, to Germany; henceforth, the Wehrmacht and allies remained on the defensive.
In Libya, the Afrika Korps failed to break through the line at First Battle of El Alamein (1–27 July 1942), having suffered repercussions from the Battle of Stalingrad. Beginning in 1942, Allied bombing of Germany increased, razing, among others, the cities of Hamburg , Cologne and Dresden , killing thousands of civilians, and causing hardship for the survivors. [ 53 ] Contemporary estimates of Nazi German military dead is 5.5 million. [ 54 ]
In November 1942, the Wehrmacht and the Italian Army retreated to Tunisia, where they fought the Americans and the British in the Tunisia Campaign (17 November 1942 – 13 May 1943). The Allies invaded Sicily and Italy next, but met fierce resistance, particularly at Anzio (22 January 1944 – 5 June 1944) and Cassino (17 January 1944 – 18 May 1944), and the campaign continued from mid-1943 to nearly the end of the war. In June 1944, American, British and Canadian forces established the western front with the D-Day (6 June 1944) landings in Normandy, France. After the successful Operation Bagration (22 June – 19 August 1944), the Red Army was in Poland; and in East Prussia , West Prussia , and Silesia the German populaces fled en masse , fearing Communist persecution, atrocity, and death. In spring of 1945, the Red Army was at Berlin; US and UK forces had conquered most of west Germany (and would go on to meet up with the Red Army at Torgau on the Elbe on 26 April 1945).
During the Battle of Berlin (16 April 1945 – 2 May 1945), Hitler and key staff members lived in the armoured, underground Führerbunker while aboveground the Red Army fought remnant forces made up of the German army, Hitler Youth , and Waffen-SS , for control of the ruined capital city of Nazi Germany. In the Führerbunker , Adolf Hitler , became psychologically isolated and detached. At the situation conference of 22 April, Hitler suffered a total nervous collapse when he was informed that the instructions he had issued the previous day for SS-General Felix Steiner 's Army Detachment Steiner to move to the rescue of Berlin had not materialised. [ 55 ] Hitler openly declared for the first time the war was lost and blamed the generals. Hitler announced he would stay in Berlin until the end and then shoot himself. [ 56 ] On 23 April, as Berlin became more isolated, Hermann Göring sent Hitler an ultimatum, threatening to assume command of Nazi Germany if he received no reply—which he would interpret as Hitler being incapacitated. Upon receiving the ultimatum, the Führer ordered Göring's immediate arrest, and despatched an aeroplane delivering the reply to Göring in Bavaria . By 25 April the Red Army encirclement of Berlin was complete and secure radio communications with defending units had been lost; the command staff in the bunker were depending on telephone lines for passing orders and on public radio for news and information. [ 57 ] Despite the losses of armies and lands, the Führer neither relinquished power, nor surrendered. On 28 April, a BBC report stated that Reichsführer-SS Heinrich Himmler had offered surrender to the western Allies. [ 58 ] Hitler ordered Himmler's arrest and had Hermann Fegelein (Himmler's SS representative at Hitler's HQ in Berlin) shot. [ 59 ]
Capitulation of German forces
On 30 April 1945, after intense street-to-street combat in Berlin, when Soviet troops were within a block or two of the Reich Chancellery , Hitler and Eva Braun committed suicide in his underground bunker . [ 60 ] Two days later, on 2 May 1945, German General Helmuth Weidling unconditionally surrendered Berlin to Soviet General Vasily Chuikov . [ 61 ]
Hitler was succeeded by Grand Admiral Karl Dönitz as Reich's President and Dr. Joseph Goebbels as Reich Chancellor. No one was to replace Hitler as the Führer , a position Hitler abolished in his will . However, Goebbels committed suicide in the Führerbunker a day after assuming office. The caretaker government Dönitz established near the Danish border unsuccessfully sought a separate peace with the Western Allies. On 4–8 May 1945 most of the remaining German armed forces throughout Europe surrendered unconditionally ( German Instrument of Surrender , 1945). This was the end of World War II in Europe .
The war was the largest and most destructive in human history, with 60 million dead across the world , [ 62 ] including approximately 6 million Jews who perished during the Holocaust , [ 63 ] 3 million Soviet prisoners of war and at least 3 million civilian non-Jewish victims of Nazi crimes. [ 64 ] [ 65 ] The Soviet Union lost around 27 million people during the war, [ 66 ] about half of all World War II casualties. [ 67 ] One in four Soviets were killed or wounded. [ 68 ] The postwar Soviet population was 45 to 50 million smaller than it would have been if pre-war demographic growth had continued. [ 69 ] Towards the end of the war, Europe had more than 40 million refugees , [ 70 ] the European economy had collapsed, and 70% of the European industrial infrastructure was destroyed. [ 71 ]
With the creation of the Allied Control Council on 5 July 1945, the four Allied powers "assume[d] supreme authority with respect to Germany" ( Declaration Regarding the Defeat of Germany , US Department of State, Treaties and Other International Acts Series, No. 1520).
The fall of the Third Reich
The Allies' Potsdam Conference in August 1945 created arrangements for the Allied occupation and denazification of the country, as well as war reparations involving the removal of war-related factories. All German annexations in Europe after 1937, and Germany's eastern border was shifted westwards to the Oder-Neisse line . France took temporary control of a large part of Germany's remaining Saar region . The Allies each had its zone, which lasted until 1949; Berlin was also divided four ways, and remained under Allied control until 1990. [ 72 ]
The United Nations organized trials of Nazi leaders for war crimes and crimes against humanity . At the Nuremberg Trials , the first, major trial was the Trial of the Major War Criminals Before the International Military Tribunal (IMT), of 24 key Nazi officials—including Hermann Göring , Ernst Kaltenbrunner , Rudolf Hess , Albert Speer , Karl Dönitz , Hans Frank , and Julius Streicher . Most defendants were found guilty, 12 were sentenced to execution. [ 73 ]
The victorious Allies outlawed the Nazi Party, its subsidiary organizations, and most of its symbols and emblems especially the swastika throughout Germany and Austria; this prohibition remains in force.
The end of Nazi Germany also saw the rise in unpopularity of related aggressive manifestations of nationalism in Germany such as Pan-Germanism and the Völkisch movement which had previously been significant political ideas there, and in other parts of Europe, before World War II. Those that remain are largely fringe movements.
To consolidate Adolf Hitler's control of Germany, in 1935, the Nazi régime de facto replaced the administration of the Länder ( constituent states ) with gaus (regional districts) headed by governors answerable to the central Reich government in Berlin. The reorganization politically weakened Prussia , which had historically dominated German politics. Moreover, despite having centralised and assumed the Gau governments, some Nazis still retained leadership title to the different Länder ; Hermann Göring was and remained the Reichsstatthalter (Reich state governor) and Minister President of Prussia until 1945, and Ludwig Siebert remained as Minister President of Bavaria .
In the years leading to war, in addition to the Weimar Republic proper, the Reich came to include areas with ethnic German populations, such as Austria, the Czechoslovak Sudetenland , and the Lithuanian territory of Memel (the Klaip?da Region ). Regions conquered after the war's start include Eupen-Malmedy , Alsace-Lorraine , Danzig , and territories of Poland (Second Polish Republic).
From 1939 to 1945, the Third Reich ruled the ethnically-Czech parts of Czechoslovakia as the Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia , with its own currency; Czech Silesia was incorporated into the province of Silesia ; and Luxembourg was a wartime annexation in 1940. Central Poland and Polish Galicia were governed by the German-administered General Government . Eventually, the Polish people were to be removed, and Poland proper then re-populated with 5 million Germans. By late 1943, Nazi Germany had conquered South Tyrol and Istria , which had been parts of Austria-Hungary before 1919, and seized Trieste after the (erstwhile Axis Ally) Italian Fascist government capitulated to the Allies. Two puppet-districts were set up in their place, the Operational Zone of the Adriatic Littoral and the Operational Zone of the Alpine Foothills .
Beyond the territories incorporated into Germany were the Reichskommissariate (Reich Commissariats), quasi- colonial regimes established in a number of occupied countries and regions that were ruled by Nazi civilian administrators ( Reichskommissars ). Although "outside" of the Reich in a legal sense these were intended for eventual incorporation into it, most notably as sources for future Lebensraum . Nazi-occupied Soviet Russia included the Reichskommissariat Ostland (encompassing the Baltic states , eastern parts of Poland , and western parts of Belarus ) and a Reichskommissariat Ukraine . More such districts, the Reichskommissariat Moskowien for much of Western Russia , the Reichskommissariat Kaukasus for the Caucasus , and the Reichskommissariat Turkestan for Central Asia were also proposed in the event that they were brought under German rule.
In Northern and Western Europe, the Germans established a Reichskommissariat Norwegen ( Norway ), and a Reichskommissariat Niederlande (the Netherlands ). In June 1944 a Franco–Belgian Reichskommissariat , derived from the previous Military Administration in Belgium and Northern France was also established to "facilitate" the area's intended annexation into Germany. This subsequently happened in December 1944, when it was split into three new Reichsgaue of the Greater German Reich: Flanders , Wallonia , and Brussels . This meant little in reality however as the majority of Belgium had already been liberated by the Allied forces at this point, although the Wehrmacht did make some small gains in retaking Wallonia during the Ardennes offensive .
Adolf Hitler and other leading Nazi politicians believed that the non-German Germanic peoples of Europe, such as the Scandinavians , the Dutch , and the Flemish , were part of the " Aryan master race ". Hitler stated that he wanted to undo the "unnatural division" of the Nordic race into many different countries (" kleinstaatengerümpel "). This was expanded on by Nazi ideologists, who made the analogy that since the union with Austria had transformed the German Reich into a Greater German Reich ( Grossdeutsches Reich ), so too would its union with the rest of historically Germanic Europe create a Greater Germanic Reich ( Grossgermanisches Reich ). The United Kingdom however was expected to be accorded a somewhat higher status, as partners in the Nazis' New Order rather than subjects. Hitler professed an admiration for the British Empire and its people as proof of Aryan superiority in Zweites Buch .
The de facto borders of the Reich changed long before its vanquishment in May 1945; as the Red Army progressed westwards, the colonist German populaces fled to Germany proper, as the Western Allies advanced eastwards, from France. At war's end, a small strip of land, from Austria to Bohemia and Moravia (and other isolated regions) was the only area not occupied by the Allies. Upon its defeat, some historians have proposed that the Reich was in debellation . France, the Soviet Union, the United Kingdom, and the United States, established occupation zones. The prewar German lands east of the Oder-Neisse line and Stettin , and environs (nearly 25 per cent of pre-war German territory) were under Polish and Soviet administration , sundered for Polish and Soviet annexation; the Allies expelled the German inhabitants . In 1947, the Allied Control Council disestablished Prussia with Law No. 46 (20 May 1947); per the Potsdam Conference (6 July–2 August 1945), the Prussian lands east of the Oder-Neisse Line were divided and administered by Poland and the Kaliningrad Oblast , pending the final peace treaty Later, by signing the Treaty of Warsaw (1970) and the Treaty on the Final Settlement with Respect to Germany (1990), Germany renounced claims to territories lost during World War II (1939–45). [ citation needed ]
In keeping with the political syncretism of fascism , the Nazi war economy was a mixed economy of free-market and central-planning practices; historian Richard Overy reports: “The German economy fell between two stools. It was not enough of a command economy to do what the Soviet system could do; yet it was not capitalist enough to rely, as America did, on the recruitment of private enterprise.” [ 74 ]
When the Nazis assumed German government, their most pressing economic matter was a national unemployment rate of approximately 30 per cent; [ 75 ] at the start, Third Reich economic policies were the brainchildren of the economist Dr. Hjalmar Schacht , President of the Reichsbank (1933) and Minister of Economics (1934), who helped Reichskanzler Adolf Hitler implement Nazi redevelopment, reindustrialization, and rearmament of Germany; formerly, he had been Weimar Republic currency commissioner and Reichsbank president. [ 75 ] As Economics Minister, Schacht was one of few ministers who took advantage of the administrative freedom allowed by the removal of the Reichsmark from the gold standard —to maintain low interest rates, and high government deficits; the extensive, national public works, reducing the unemployment, were deficit-funded policy. [ 75 ] The consequence of Economics Minister Schacht's administration was the extremely rapid unemployment-rate decline, the greatest of any country during the Great Depression . [ 75 ] Eventually, this Keynesian economic policy was supplemented by the increased production demands of warfare, inflating military budgets, and increasing government spending; the 100,000-soldier Reichswehr expanded to millions, and renamed as the Wehrmacht in 1935. [ 75 ]
While the strict state intervention into the economy, and the massive rearmament policy, almost led to full employment during the 1930s (statistics didn't include non-citizens or women), real wages in Germany dropped by roughly 25% between 1933 and 1938. [ 76 ] Trade unions were abolished, as well as collective bargaining and the right to strike . [ 77 ] The right to quit also disappeared: Labour books were introduced in 1935, and required the consent of the previous employer in order to be hired for another job. [ 77 ]
Nazi control of business retained a diminished investment profit-incentive, controlled with economic regulation concording a company's functioning with the Reich ’s national production requirements. Government financing eventually dominated private investment; in the 1933–34 biennium, the proportion of private securities issued diminished from more than 50 per cent of the total, to approximately 10 per cent in the 1935–38 quadrennium. Heavy profit taxes limited self-financing companies, and the largest companies (usually government contractors) mostly were exempted from paying taxes on profits—in practice, however, government control allowed “only the shell of private ownership” in the Third Reich economy. [ 78 ]
In 1937, Hermann Göring replaced Schacht as Minister of Economics, and introduced the Four Year Plan that would establish German self-sufficiency for war—within four years—by curtailing foreign importations; fixing wages and prices (violators merited concentration-camp internment); stock dividends were restricted to six per cent on book capital , et cetera. Strategic goals were to be achieved regardless of cost (as in Soviet economics): thus the rapid construction of synthetic-rubber factories, steel mills, automatic textile mills, et cetera. [ 75 ]
The Four-Year Plan is discussed in the German-expansion Hossbach Memorandum (5 November 1937) meeting-summary of Hitler and his military and foreign policy leaders planning aggressive war. Nevertheless, when Nazi Germany started World War II, in September 1939, the Four Year Plan's expiry was not until 1940; to control the Reich economy, Economics Minister Göring had established the Office of the Four Year Plan. In 1942, the increased burdens of the war, and the accidental aeroplane-crash death of Reichsminister Fritz Todt , placed Albert Speer in economics ministry command; he then established a war economy in Nazi Germany, which required the large-scale employment of forced labourers . To supply the Third Reich economy with slaves, the Nazis abducted some 12 million people, from some 20 European countries; approximately 75 per cent were Eastern European. [ 79 ]
Through staffing of most government positions with Nazi Party members, by 1935 the German national government and the Nazi Party had become virtually one and the same. By 1938, through the policy of Gleichschaltung , local and state governments lost all legislative power and answered administratively to Nazi Party leaders, known as Gauleiters , who governed Gaue and Reichsgaue .
Nazi Germany was made up of various competing power structures, all trying to gain favor with the Führer , Adolf Hitler. Thus many existing laws were stricken and replaced with interpretations of what Hitler wanted. Any high party/government official could take one of Hitler's comments and turn it into a new law, of which Hitler would casually either approve or disapprove. This became known as "working towards the Führer ", as the government was not a coordinated, co-operating body, but a collection of individuals each trying to gain more power and influence through the Führer. This often made government very convoluted and divided, especially with Hitler's vague policy of creating similar posts with overlapping powers and authority. The process allowed the more unscrupulous and ambitious Nazis to get away with implementing the more radical and extreme elements of Hitler's ideology, such as anti-Semitism, and in doing so win political favor. Protected by Goebbels' extremely effective propaganda machine, which portrayed the government as a dedicated, dutiful and efficient outfit, the dog-eat-dog competition and chaotic legislation was allowed to escalate. Historical opinion is divided between "intentionalists", who believe that Hitler created this system as the only means of ensuring both the total loyalty and dedication of his supporters and the impossibility of a conspiracy; and "structuralists", who believe that the system evolved by itself and was a limitation on Hitler's supposedly totalitarian power.
- Office of the Reich Chancellery ( Hans Lammers )
- Office of the Party Chancellery ( Martin Bormann )
- Office of the Presidential Chancellery ( Otto Meißner )
- Privy Cabinet Council ( Konstantin von Neurath )
- Chancellery of the Führer ( Philip Bouhler )
- Office of the Four-Year Plan ( Hermann Göring )
- Office of the Reich Master Forester ( Hermann Göring )
- Office of the Inspector for Highways
- Office of the President of the Reich Bank
- Reich Main Security Office ( Reinhard Heydrich )
- Reich Youth Office
- Reich Treasury Office
- General Inspector of the Reich Capital
- Office of the Councilor for the Capital of the Movement ( Munich, Bavaria )
- NSDAP Office of Racial Policy
- NSDAP Office of Colonial Policy
- NSDAP Office of Foreign Affairs
- Amt Rosenberg
- Reich Foreign Ministry ( Joachim von Ribbentrop )
- Reich Interior Ministry ( Wilhelm Frick , Heinrich Himmler )
- Reich Ministry of Public Enlightenment and Propaganda ( Joseph Goebbels )
- Reich Ministry of Aviation ( Hermann Göring )
- Reich Ministry of Finance ( Lutz Schwerin von Krosigk )
- Reich Ministry of Justice ( Franz Gürtner , Otto Thierack )
- Reich Economics Ministry ( Alfred Hugenberg , Kurt Schmitt , Hjalmar Schacht , Hermann Göring , Walther Funk )
- Reich Ministry for Nutrition and Agriculture ( Richard Walther Darré , Herbert Backe )
- Reich Labour Ministry ( Franz Seldte )
- Reich Ministry for Science, Education, and Public Instruction ( Bernhard Rust )
- Reich Ministry for Ecclesiastical Affairs ( Hanns Kerrl )
- Reich Transportation Ministry ( Julius Dorpmüller )
- Reich Postal Ministry ( Wilhelm Ohnesorge )
- Reich Ministry for Weapons, Munitions, and Armament ( Fritz Todt , Albert Speer )
- Reich Ministry for the Occupied Eastern Territories ( Alfred Rosenberg )
- Reich Ministers without Portfolio ( Konstantin von Neurath , Hans Frank , Hjalmar Schacht , Arthur Seyss-Inquart )
National Socialism had some of the key ideological elements of fascism which originally developed in Italy under Benito Mussolini ; however, the Nazis never officially declared themselves fascists. Both ideologies involved the political use of militarism , nationalism , anti-communism and paramilitary forces, and both intended to create a dictatorial state. [ citation needed ] The Nazis, however, were far more racially oriented than the fascists in Italy, Portugal , and Spain. The Nazis were also intent on creating a completely totalitarian state, unlike Italian fascists who while promoting a totalitarian state, allowed a larger degree of private liberties for their citizens. These differences allowed the Italian monarchy to continue to exist and have some official powers. However the Nazis copied much of their symbolism from the Fascists in Italy, such as copying the Roman salute as the Nazi salute, use of mass rallies, both made use of uniformed paramilitaries devoted to the party (the SA in Germany and the Blackshirts in Italy), both Hitler and Mussolini were called the "Leader" ( Führer in German, Duce in Italian), both were anti-Communist, both wanted an ideologically driven state, and both advocated a middle-way between capitalism and communism, commonly known as corporatism . The party itself rejected the fascist label, claiming National Socialism was an ideology unique to Germany.
The totalitarian nature of the Nazi party was one of its principal tenets. The Nazis contended that all the great achievements in the past of the German nation and its people were associated with the ideals of National Socialism, even before the ideology officially existed. Propaganda accredited the consolidation of Nazi ideals and successes of the regime to the regime's Führer ("Leader"), Adolf Hitler, who was portrayed as the genius behind the Nazi party's success and Germany's saviour.
To secure their ability to create a totalitarian state, the Nazi party's paramilitary force, the Sturmabteilung (SA) or "Storm Detachment" used acts of violence against leftists, communists, democrats, Jews and other opposition or minority groups. The SA "storm troopers" violently clashed with the Communist Party of Germany ( German Kommunistische Partei Deutschlands – KPD) which created a climate of lawlessness and fear. In the cities, people were anxious over punishment or even death, if they displayed opposition to the Nazis. Given the frustrations of the people (after World War I and during the Great Depression) it was easy for the SA to attract large numbers of alienated (and unemployed) youth and working class people for the party.
The "German problem", as it is often referred to in English scholarship, focuses on the issue of administration of Germanic regions in Northern and Central Europe, an important theme throughout German history. [ 80 ] The "logic" of keeping Germany small worked in the favor of its principal economic rivals, and had been a driving force in the recreation of a Polish state. [ citation needed ] The goal was to create numerous counterweights in order to "balance out Germany's power".
The Nazis endorsed the concept of Großdeutschland , or Greater Germany , and believed that the incorporation of the Germanic people into one nation was a vital step towards their national success. [ citation needed ] It was the Nazis' passionate support of the Volk concept of Greater Germany that led to Germany's expansion, that gave legitimacy and the support needed for the Third Reich to proceed to conquer long-lost territories with overwhelmingly non-German population like former Prussian gains in Poland that it lost to Russia in the 19th century, or to acquire territories with German population like parts of Austria. The German concept of Lebensraum ("living space") or more specifically its need for an expanding German population was also claimed by the Nazi regime for territorial expansion.
Two important issues were administration of the Polish corridor and Danzig 's incorporation into the Reich. As a further extension of racial policy, the Lebensraum program pertained to similar interests; the Nazis determined that Eastern Europe would be settled with ethnic Germans, and the Slavic population who met the Nazi racial standard would be absorbed into the Reich. Those not fitting the racial standard were to be used as cheap labour force or deported eastward. [ 81 ]
Racialism and racism were important aspects of society within the Third Reich. The Nazis combined anti-Semitism with anti-Communist ideology, regarding the leftist-internationalist movement—as well as international market capitalism—as the work of "Conspiratorial Jewry". They referred to this so-called movement with terminology such as the "Jewish-Bolshevistic revolution of subhumans". [ 82 ] This platform manifested itself in the displacement, internment, and systematic extermination of an estimated 11 million to 12 million people in the midst of World War II, roughly half of them being Jews targeted in what is historically remembered as the Holocaust ( Shoah ), 3 million ethnic Poles that died as a result of warfare, genocide, reprisals, forced labor or famine, [ 43 ] and another 100,000–1,000,000 being Roma , who were murdered in the Porajmos . Other victims of Nazi persecution included communists, various political opponents, social outcasts, homosexuals , freethinkers , religious dissidents such as Jehovah's Witnesses , Christadelphians , the Confessing Church and Freemasons . [ 83 ]
Foreign relations between Germany and the rest of Europe were riddled with political maneuvers and opportunistic decisions. Fearing a second world war, Britain and France sought a policy of appeasement towards Germany, and refused aggressive foreign policies to satisfy the newly empowered Nazis. Hitler aims upon coming to power was threefold; destroy Versailles, re-unite lost German territories under the decrees of Versailles, and Lebensraum . It is said that Hitler wanted Britain as an ally with wars with the USSR, and eventually the USA. Hitler used the Appeasement policies of Britain and France to his opportunistic advantage when he announced in March 1935 that he would conscript men into his army and create the Luftwaffe ; both a direct violation of Versailles. His foreign policies were designed to test the nerve of Britain and France so he could see what else he was able to get away with. His other concern was Italy, whom under Mussolini had become a similarly fascist country, but had so much internal civil disruption Hitler wanted a more stable and powerful ally.
Although Germany's relations with Italy improved with creation of the Rome-Berlin Axis , tensions remained high because the Nazis wanted Austria to be incorporated into Germany. Italy was opposed to this, as were France and Britain. In 1938, an Austrian-led Nazi coup took place in Austria and Germany sent in its troops, annexing the country. Italy and Britain no longer had common interests and, as Germany had stopped supporting the German speaking population under Italy's control in South Tyrol , Italy began to gravitate towards Germany.
Germany's annexation of the Sudetenland from Czechoslovakia in September 1938 came about during talks with British Prime Minister Neville Chamberlain , in which Hitler, backed by Italian dictator Benito Mussolini , demanded that the German territories be ceded. Chamberlain and Hitler came to an agreement when Hitler signed a piece of paper which said that with the annexation of the Sudetenland, Germany would proceed with no further territorial aims. Chamberlain took this to be a success in that it avoided a potential war with Germany. However, the Nazis helped to promote Slovakian dissention and declaring that the country was no more, seized control of the Czech part.
For quite some time, Germany had engaged in informal negotiations with Poland regarding the issue of territorial revision, but after the Munich Agreement and the reacquisition of Memel, the Nazis became increasingly vocal. Poland refused to allow the annexation of the Free City of Danzig .
Germany and the Soviet Union began talks over planning an invasion of Poland. In August 1939, the Molotov Pact was signed and Germany and the Soviet Union agreed to divide Poland along a mutually agreed set boundary. The invasion was put into effect on 1 September 1939. Last-minute Polish-German diplomatic proceedings failed, and Germany invaded Poland as scheduled. Germany alleged that Polish operatives had attacked German positions, but the result was the outbreak of World War II , as Allied forces refused to accept Germany's claims on Poland and blamed Germany for the conflict.
From 1939-1940, the so-called " Phoney War " occurred, as German forces made no further advances but instead, both the Axis and Allies engaged in a propaganda campaign. However in early 1940, Germany began to concern that the British intended to stop trade between Sweden and Germany by bringing Norway into an alliance against Germany, with Norway in Allied hands, the Allies would be dangerously close to German territory. In response, Germany invaded Denmark and Norway ending the Phoney War (leapfrogging the British invasion troops bound towards Norway by just 24 hours). After sweeping through the Low Countries and occupying northern France, Germany allowed French nationalist and war hero Philippe Petain to form a fascist regime in southern France known as the "French State" but more commonly referred to as Vichy France named after its capital in Vichy .
On October 23, 1940 Adolf Hitler and Francisco Franco , the dictator of Spain , met in Hendaye to discuss Spain entering the war. Franco asked too much from Hitler. Even though Spain would remain neutral during World War II Spain and Nazi Germany would remain allies during the war. Spain would send Volunteer soldiers to fight for Germany but only against the Soviet Union . Spain was subsequently isolated following the war until re-aligning towards economic liberalism and a pro-Western foreign policy in the 1950s. [ citation needed ]
In 1941, Germany's invasion of Yugoslavia resulted in that state's splintering. In spite of Hitler's earlier view of inferiority of all Slavs , he supported Mussolini's agenda of creating a fascist puppet state of Croatia , called the Independent State of Croatia . Croatia was led by the extreme nationalist Ante Paveli? a long-time Croatian exile in Rome, whose Ustashe movement formed a government in modern-day Croatia and Bosnia and Herzegovina . The Ustashe were allowed to persecute Serbs, while Germany contributed to that goal in German-occupied Serbia.
From 1941 to the end of the war, Germany engaged in war with the Soviet Union in its attempt to create the Nazi colonial goal of Lebensraum "living space" for German citizens. The German occupation authorities set up occupation and colonial authorities called Reichskommissariats such as Reichskommissariat Ostland and Reichskommissariat Ukraine . The Slavic populations were to be destroyed along with Jews there to make way for German colonists.
As the fortunes of war changed, Germany was forced to occupy Italy when Mussolini was thrown out as Prime Minister by Italy's king in 1943. German forces rescued Mussolini and instructed him to establish a fascist regime in Italy called the Italian Social Republic . This was the last major foreign policy delivered. The remainder of the war saw the decline of German power and desperate attempts by Nazi officials such as Heinrich Himmler to negotiate a peace with the western Allies against the wishes of Hitler.
Most of the judicial structures and legal codes of the Weimar Republic remained in use during the Third Reich, but significant changes within the judicial codes occurred, as well as significant changes in court rulings. The Nazi party was the only legal political party in Germany; all other political parties were banned. Most human rights of the constitution of the Weimar Republic were disabled by several Reichsgesetze ("Reich's laws"). Several minorities such as the Jews, opposition politicians and prisoners of war were deprived of most of their rights and responsibilities. The Plan to pass a Volksstrafgesetzbuch ("people's code of criminal justice") arose soon after 1933, but didn't come into reality until the end of World War II.
As a new type of court, the Volksgerichtshof ("people's court") was established in 1934, only dealing with cases of political importance. From 1934-September 1944, a total of 5,375 death sentences were spoken by the court. Not included in this numbers are the death sentences from 20 July 1944-April 1945, which are estimated at 2,000. Its most prominent jurist was Roland Freisler , who headed the court from August 1942-February 1945.
The military of the Third Reich – the Wehrmacht – was the name of the unified armed forces of Germany from 1935-1945 with Heer (Army), Kriegsmarine (Navy), Luftwaffe (Air Force) and a military organization Waffen-SS (military branch of the Schutzstaffel , which was, de facto, a fourth branch of the Wehrmacht ). [ 84 ]
The German Army furthered concepts pioneered during World War I , combining Ground and Air Force assets into combined arms teams. Coupled with traditional war fighting methods such as encirclements and the "battle of annihilation", the German military managed many lightning quick victories in the first year of World War II , prompting foreign journalists to create a new word for what they witnessed: Blitzkrieg . The total number of soldiers who served in the Wehrmacht during its existence from 1935-1945 is believed to approach 18.2 million.
The effects of Nazi social policy in Germany was divided between those considered to be "Aryan" and those considered "non-Aryan", Jewish, or part of other minority groups. For "Aryan" Germans, a number of social policies put through by the regime to benefit them were advanced for the time, including state opposition to the use of tobacco, an end to official stigmatization toward Aryan children who were born from parents outside of marriage, as well as giving financial assistance to Aryan German families who bore children. [ 85 ]
The Nazi Party pursued its racial and social policies through persecution and killing of those considered social undesirables or "enemies of the Reich".
In the 1930s, plans to isolate and eventually eliminate Jews completely in Germany began with the construction of ghettos, concentration camps, and labour camps which began with the 1933 construction of the Dachau concentration camp , which Heinrich Himmler officially described as "the first concentration camp for political prisoners ." [ 88 ]
In the years following the Nazi rise to power, many Jews were encouraged to leave the country and did so. By the time the Nuremberg Laws were passed in 1935, Jews were stripped of their German citizenship and denied government employment. Most Jews employed by Germans lost their jobs at this time, which were being taken by unemployed Germans. Notably, the government attempted to send 17,000 German Jews of Polish descent back to Poland, a decision which led to the assassination of Ernst vom Rath by Herschel Grynszpan , a German Jew living in France. This provided the pretext for a pogrom the Nazi Party incited against the Jews on 9 November 1938, which specifically targeted Jewish businesses. The event was called Kristallnacht (Night of Broken Glass, literally "Crystal Night"); the euphemism was used because the numerous broken windows made the streets look as if covered with crystals. By September 1939, more than 200,000 Jews had left Germany, with the government seizing any property they left behind.
The Nazis also undertook programs targeting "weak" or "unfit" people, such as the T-4 Euthanasia Program , killing tens of thousands of disabled and sick Germans in an effort to "maintain the purity of the German Master race " (German: Herrenvolk ) as described by Nazi propagandists . The techniques of mass killing developed in these efforts would later be used in the Holocaust . Under a law passed in 1933, the Nazi regime carried out the compulsory sterilization of over 400,000 individuals labeled as having hereditary defects, ranging from mental illness to alcoholism .
Another component of the Nazi programme of creating racial purity was the Lebensborn , or "Fountain of Life" programme founded in 1935. The programme was aimed at encouraging German soldiers—mainly SS—to reproduce. This included offering SS families support services (including the adoption of racially pure children into suitable SS families) and accommodating racially valuable women, pregnant with mainly SS men's children, in care homes in Germany and throughout Occupied Europe. Lebensborn also expanded to encompass the placing of racially pure children forcibly seized from occupied countries—such as Poland—with German families. [ citation needed ]
In 1941 it was decided to destroy the Polish nation completely and the German leadership decided that in 10 to 20 years the Polish state under German occupation was to be fully cleared of any ethnic Poles and settled by German colonists. [ 89 ] The Nazis considered Jews, Romani people, Poles along with other Slavic people like the Russians , Ukrainians , Czechs and anyone else who was not an " Aryan " according to the contemporary Nazi race terminology to be Untermenschen ("subhumans"). The Nazis rationalized that the (Aryan) Germans had a biological right to displace, eliminate and enslave inferiors. [ 90 ] [ 91 ] After the war, under the "Big Plan", Generalplan Ost foresaw the deportation of 45 million non- Germanizable people from Eastern Europe , 85% of Poles, Belorussians (75%) and Ukrainians (65%), to West Siberia , [ 92 ] and about 14 millions were to remain, but were to be treated as slaves. [ 93 ] [ 94 ] In their place, Germans would be settled in an extended "living space" of the 1000-Year Empire . [ 95 ]
Herbert Backe was one of the orchestrators of the Hunger Plan - the plan to starve tens of millions of Slavs in order to ensure steady food supplies for the German people and troops. [ 96 ] In the longer term, [ 97 ] the Nazis wanted to exterminate some 30–45 million Slavs. [ 98 ] According to Michael Dorland, "As Yale historian Timothy Snyder reminds us, had the Nazis succeeded in their war on Russia, the implementation of two further dimensions of the Holocaust, the Hunger Plan and Generalplan Ost , would have led to the elimination through starvation of an additional 80 million people in Belarus, northern Russia and the USSR." [ 99 ]
At the outset of World War II , the German authority in the General Government in occupied Poland ordered that all Jews face compulsory labour and that those who were physically incapable such as women and children were to be confined to ghettos . [ 100 ]
To the Nazis, a number of ideas appeared on how to answer the "Jewish Question" . One method was a mass forced deportation of Jews. Adolf Eichmann suggested that Jews be forced to emigrate to Palestine . [ 101 ] Franz Rademacher made the proposal that Jews be deported to Madagascar; this proposal was supported by Himmler and was discussed by Hitler and Italian dictator Benito Mussolini but was later dismissed as impractical in 1942. [ 102 ] The idea of continuing deportations to occupied Poland was rejected by the governor, Hans Frank , of the General Government of occupied Poland as Frank refused to accept any more deportations of Jews to the territory which already had large numbers of Jews. [ 102 ] In 1942, at the Wannsee Conference , Nazi officials decided to eliminate the Jews altogether, as discussed the " Final Solution of the Jewish Question". Concentration camps like Auschwitz were converted and used gas chambers to kill as many Jews as possible. By 1945, a number of concentration camps had been liberated by Allied forces and they found the survivors to be severely malnourished. The Allies also found evidence that the Nazis were profiteering from the mass murder of Jews not only by confiscating their property and personal valuables but also by extracting gold fillings from the bodies of some Jews held in concentration camps.
Education under the Nazi regime focused on racial biology, population policy, culture, geography and especially physical fitness. [ 103 ] Military education ( Wehrerziehung ) became the central component of physical education; [ 104 ] the historical mission of Germany and the study of its “great men” were the primary subject of history classes; [ 105 ] and science textbooks presented natural selection in terms meant to underline the concept of racial purity. [ 106 ]
Anti-Semitic policy led to the expulsion of Jewish teachers and professors and officials from the education system. [ 107 ] Likewise, politically undesirable teachers, such as socialists, were expelled as part of the “Law for the Restoration of the Civil Service” ( Gesetz zur Wiederherstellung des Berufbeamtentums ). [ 108 ] The success of this policy is reflected in the membership of the National Socialist Teachers' Association ( Nationalsozialistischer Lehrerbund , NSLB), which by 1937 claimed 97% of all teachers as members. [ 109 ] All university professors were required to be a member of the National Socialist Association of University Lecturers in order to be able to be employed as professors. [ 110 ]
While the official line mandated that all vestiges of liberal education be discarded, the teaching methods promoted under National Socialism were experiential and active in their orientation. This was largely an extension of the anti-intellectual attitude of the Nazi leadership, however, and not primarily an attempt to experiment with new didactic methods. As Henrich Hansen, the head of the NS-Teachers' Association, put it:
- "The youth of Germany will no longer be 'objectively' posed with the choice between an upbringing that is materialistic or idealistic, ethnic [ völkish ] or international, religious or godless, rather it will be consciously formed according to principles that have shown themselves to be true: the principles of the national socialist worldview. [ 111 ]
In seeking a way to make education less abstract, less intellectual and less distant from children, educators called for a much-expanded role for film. Reichsfilmintendant and Head of the Film Section in the Propaganda Ministry Fritz Hippler wrote that film affects people “primarily on the optical and emotional, that is to say, non-intellectual” level,. [ 112 ] Film also appealed to the Nazi leadership as a medium through which they could speak directly to children without the mediation of teachers. Dr. Bernhard Rust saw film as an essential tool, saying "The National Socialist State definitely and deliberately makes the film the transmitter of its ideology." [ 113 ]
Recent research by academics such as Götz Aly has emphasized the role of the extensive Nazi social welfare programs that focused on providing employment for German citizens and insuring a minimal living standard for German citizens. Heavily focused on was the idea of a national German community or Volksgemeinschaft . [ 114 ]
To aid the fostering of a feeling of community, the German people's labour and entertainment experiences—from festivals, to vacation trips and traveling cinemas—were all made a part of the " Strength through Joy " ( Kraft durch Freude , KdF) program. Also crucial to the building of loyalty and comradeship was the implementation of the National Labour Service and the Hitler Youth Organization, with compulsory membership. In addition to this, a number of architectural projects were undertaken. KdF created the KdF-wagen , later known as the Volkswagen ("People's Car"), which was designed to be an automobile that every German citizen would be able to afford. With the outbreak of World War II the car was converted into a military vehicle and civilian production was stopped. Another national project undertaken was the construction of the Autobahn , which made it the first freeway system in the world.
The Winter Relief campaigns not only collected charity for the unfortunate, but acted as a ritual to generate public feeling. [ 115 ] As part of the centralization of Nazi Germany, posters urged people to donate rather to give directly to beggars. [ 116 ]
According to the research of Robert N. Proctor for his book The Nazi War on Cancer , [ 117 ] [ 118 ] Nazi Germany had arguably the most powerful anti-tobacco movement in the world. Anti-tobacco research received a strong backing from the government, and German scientists proved that cigarette smoke could cause cancer. German pioneering research on experimental epidemiology led to the 1939 paper by Franz H. Müller, and the 1943 paper by Eberhard Schairer and Erich Schöniger which convincingly demonstrated that tobacco smoking was a main culprit in lung cancer . The government urged German doctors to counsel patients against tobacco use.
German research on the dangers of tobacco was silenced after the war, and the dangers of tobacco had to be rediscovered by American and English scientists in the early 1950s, with a medical consensus arising in the early 1960s. German scientists also proved that asbestos was a health hazard, and in 1943—as the first nation in the world to offer such a benefit—Germany recognized the diseases caused by asbestos, eg, lung cancer, as occupational illnesses eligible for compensation. The German asbestos-cancer research was later used by American lawyers doing battle against the Johns-Manville Corporation.
As part of the general public-health campaign in Nazi Germany, water supplies were cleaned up, lead and mercury were removed from consumer products, and women were urged to undergo regular screenings for breast cancer . [ 117 ] [ 118 ]
The Nazi health care system also held as a central idea the concept of Eugenics . Certain people were deemed 'genetically inferior' and were targeted for elimination from the gene pool through sterilization ( Hereditary Health Courts ) or wholesale murder ( Action T4 ). Medical information professionals used new processes and technology, like punch card systems , and cost analysis, to aid in the process and calculate the 'benefit' to society of these killings. [ 119 ]
The Nazis opposed the feminist movement, claiming that it had a left-wing agenda (comparable to Communism) and was bad for both women and men. The Nazi regime advocated a patriarchal society in which German women would recognize the "world is her husband, her family, her children, and her home." [ 120 ] Hitler claimed that women taking vital jobs away from men during the Great Depression was economically bad for families in that women were paid only 66 percent of what men earned. [ 120 ] Simultaneously with calling for women to leave work outside the home, the regime called for women to be actively supportive of the state regarding women's affairs. In 1933, Hitler appointed Gertrud Scholtz-Klink as the Reich Women's Leader, who instructed women that their primary role in society was to bear children and that women should be subservient to men, once saying "the mission of woman is to minister in the home and in her profession to the needs of life from the first to last moment of man's existence.". [ 120 ] The expectation even applied to Aryan women married to Jewish men—a necessary ingredient in the 1943 Rosenstrasse protest in which 1800 German women (joined by 4200 relatives) obliged the Nazi state to release their Jewish husbands. This position was so strong held as to make it extremely difficult to recruit women for war jobs during World War II. [ 121 ]
The Nazi regime discouraged women from seeking higher education in secondary schools, universities and colleges. [ 122 ] The number of women allowed to enroll in universities dropped drastically under the Nazi regime, which shrank from approximately 128,000 women being enrolled in 1933 to 51,000 in 1938. [ 110 ] Female enrollment in secondary schools dropped from 437,000 in 1926 to 205,000 in 1937. [ 110 ] However with the requirement of men to be enlisted into the German armed forces during the war, women made up half of the enrollment in the education system by 1944. [ 110 ]
On the other hand, the women were expected to be strong, healthy, and vital; a photograph subtitled "Future Mothers" showed teenage girls dressed for sport and bearing javelins. [ 123 ] A sturdy peasant woman, who worked the land and bore strong children, was an ideal, contributing to praise for athletic women tanned by outdoor work. [ 124 ]
Organizations were made for the indoctrination of Nazi values to German women. Such organizations included the Jungmädel ("Young Girls") section of the Hitler Youth for girls from the age 10 to 14, the Bund Deutscher Mädel (BDM, "German Girls' League") for young women from 14 to 18, and the NS-Frauenschaft , a woman's organization.
The NS-Frauenschaft put out the NS-Frauen-Warte , the only approved women's magazine in Nazi Germany. [ 125 ] Despite its propaganda aspects, it was predominantly a woman's magazine, [ 126 ] even including sewing patterns. [ 127 ]
The BDM's activities encompassed physical education, including running, the long jump, somersaulting, tightrope walking, rout-marching, and swimming. [ 128 ] Das deutsche Mädel was less adventure-oriented than the boy's Der Pimpf , [ 129 ] but far more emphasis was laid on strong and active German women than in NS-Frauen-Warte . [ 130 ] Also, before entering any occupation or advanced studies, the girls, like the boys in Hitler Youth, had to complete a year of land service. [ 131 ]
On the issue of sexual affairs regarding women, the Nazis differed greatly from the restrictive stances on women's role in society. The Nazi regime promoted a liberal code of conduct as regards sexual matters, and were sympathetic to women bearing children out of wedlock. [ 85 ] The collapse of 19th century morals in Germany accelerated during the Third Reich, partly due to the Nazis, and greatly due to the effects of the war. [ 85 ] Promiscuity increased greatly as the war progressed, with unmarried soldiers often involved intimately with several women simultaneously. [ 85 ] Married women were often involved in multiple affairs simultaneously, with soldiers, civilians or slave labourers . [ 85 ] "Some farm wives in Württemberg had already begun using sex as a commodity, employing carnal favours as a means of getting a full day's work from foreign labourers." [ 85 ] Nevertheless, publically, Nazi propaganda opposed adultery and upheld the sancticity of marriage. [ 132 ] Several films shot in this era altered their source material so that the woman, rather than the man, would suffer death for sexual transgressions, reflecting whose fault it was held to be. [ 133 ] When attempts were made to destigmatize illegitimate births, Lebensborn homes were presented the public as for married women. [ 134 ] Overtly anti-marriage statements, such as Himmler's statements regarding the care of the illegimate children of dead soldiers, were greeted with protests. [ 135 ]
An example of the way in which Nazi doctrines differed from practice is that, whilst sexual relationships among campers was explicitly forbidden, boys' and girls' camps of the Hitlerjugend associations were needlessly placed close together as if to make it happen. Pregnancy (including repercussions on established marriages) often resulted when fetching members of the Bund Deutscher Mädel were assigned to duties which juxtaposed them with tempted men. [ 136 ] Ilsa McKee noted that the lectures of Hitler Youth and the BDM on the need to produce more children produced several illegitimate children, which neither the mothers nor the possible fathers regarded as problematic. [ 137 ]
Marriage or sexual relations between a person considered “Aryan” and one that was not were classified as Rassenschande were forbidden and under penalty (people found guilty could face incarceration in a concentration camp, while non-Aryans could face the death penalty). [ 138 ] Pamphlets enjoined all German women to avoid sexual intercourse with all foreign workers brought to Germany as a danger to their blood. [ 139 ]
Abortion was heavily penalized in Nazi Germany unless on the grounds of "racial health"; from 1943 abortionists faced the death penalty. [ 140 ] Display of contraceptives was not allowed and Hitler himself described contraception as "violation of nature, as degradation of womanhood, motherhood and love." [ 141 ]
In 1935, the regime enacted the "Reich Nature Protection Act". While not a purely Nazi piece of legislation, as parts of its influences pre-dated the Nazi rise to power, it nevertheless reflected Nazi ideology. The concept of the Dauerwald (best translated as the "perpetual forest") which included concepts such as forest management and protection was promoted and efforts were also made to curb air pollution . [ 142 ] [ 143 ]
In practice, the enacted laws and policies met resistance from various ministries that sought to undermine them, and from the priority that the war-effort took to environmental protection.
Animal protection policy
The Nazis had elements which were supportive of animal rights, zoos and wildlife, [ 144 ] and took several measures to ensure their protection. [ 145 ] In 1933 the government enacted a stringent animal-protection law. [ 146 ] [ 147 ] Many NSDAP leaders including Adolf Hitler and Hermann Göring were supporters of animal protection. Several Nazis were environmentalists (notably Rudolf Hess ), and species protection and animal welfare were significant issues in the regime. [ 148 ] Heinrich Himmler made efforts to ban the hunting of animals. [ 149 ] Göring was an animal lover and conservationist . [ 150 ] The current animal welfare laws in Germany are more or less modification of the laws introduced by the National Socialist regime. [ 151 ]
Although enacting various laws for animal protection, there was a lack of enforcement. According to Pfugers Archiv für die Gesamte Physiologie (Pfugers Archive for the Total Physiology), a science journal at that time, there were many animal experiments during the Nazi regime. [ 152 ] The Nazi regime disbanded several unofficial organizations advocating environmentalism and animal protection, such as the Friends of Nature . [ 153 ]
The regime sought to restore traditional values in German culture. The art and culture that came to define the Weimar Republic years was repressed. The visual arts were strictly monitored and traditional, focusing on exemplifying Germanic themes, racial purity , militarism , heroism , power, strength, and obedience. Modern abstract art and avant-garde art was removed from museums and put on special display as " degenerate art ", where it was to be ridiculed. In one notable example, on 31 March 1937, huge crowds stood in line to view a special display of "degenerate art" in Munich. Art forms considered to be degenerate included Dada , Cubism , Expressionism , Fauvism , Impressionism , New Objectivity , and Surrealism . Literature written by Jewish, other non-Aryans, homosexual or authors opposed to the Nazis was destroyed by the regime. The most infamous destruction of literature was the book burnings by German students in 1933.
Despite the official attempt to forge a pure Germanic culture, one major area of the arts, architecture, under Hitler's personal guidance, was neoclassical , a style based on architecture of ancient Rome . [ 154 ] This style stood out in stark contrast and opposition to newer, more liberal, and more popular architecture styles of the time such as Art Deco . Various Roman buildings were examined by state architect Albert Speer for architectural designs for state buildings. Speer constructed huge and imposing structures such as in the Nazi party rally grounds in Nuremberg and the new Reich Chancellery building in Berlin . One design that was pursued, but never built, was a gigantic version of the Pantheon in Rome , called the Volkshalle to be the semi-religious centre of Nazism in a renamed Berlin called Germania , which was to be the "world capital" ( Welthauptstadt ). Also to be constructed was a Triumphal arch , several times larger than that found in Paris, which was also based upon a classical styling. Many of the designs for Germania were impractical to construct because of their size and the marshy soil underneath Berlin; later the materials that were to be used for construction were diverted to the war effort.
Cinema and media
The majority of German films of the period were intended principally as works of entertainment. The import of foreign films was legally restricted after 1936, and the German industry, which was effectively nationalised in 1937, had to make up for the missing foreign films (above all American productions). Entertainment also became increasingly important in the later years of World War II when the cinema provided a distraction from Allied bombing and a string of German defeats. In both 1943 and 1944 cinema admissions in Germany exceeded a billion , [ 155 ] and the biggest box office hits of the war years were Die große Liebe (1942) and Wunschkonzert (1941), which both combine elements of the musical , wartime romance and patriotic propaganda, Frauen sind doch bessere Diplomaten (1941), a comic musical which was one of the earliest German films in colour, and Wiener Blut (1942), the adaptation of a Johann Strauß comic operetta . The importance of the cinema as a tool of the state, both for its propaganda value and its ability to keep the populace entertained, can be seen in the filming history of Veit Harlan 's Kolberg (1945), the most expensive film of the era, for the shooting of which tens of thousands of soldiers were diverted from their military positions to appear as extras. [ 156 ]
Despite the emigration of many film-makers and the political restrictions, the German film industry was not without technical and aesthetic innovations, the introduction of Agfacolor film production being a notable example. Technical and aesthetic achievement could also be turned to the specific ends of the Greater German Reich, most spectacularly in the work of Leni Riefenstahl . Riefenstahl's Triumph of the Will (1935), documenting the Nuremberg Rally (1934), and Olympia (1938), documenting the 1936 Summer Olympics , pioneered techniques of camera movement and editing that have influenced many later films. Both films, particularly Triumph of the Will , remain highly controversial, as their aesthetic merit is inseparable from their propagandizing of Nationalsocialism ideals. [ 156 ] Irreplacable artists deemed fitting the National socialist ideals such as Marika Rokk and Johannes Heesters where placed on the Gottbegnadeten list by Joseph Goebbels during the war. [ 157 ]
Two major displays of Nazi German art and culture were at the 1936 Summer Olympics and at the German pavilion at the 1937 International Exposition in Paris. The 1936 Olympics was meant to display to the world the Aryan superiority of Germany to other nations. German athletes were carefully chosen not only for strength but for Aryan appearance. However, one common belief of Hitler snubbing African-American athlete Jesse Owens has recently been discovered to be technically incorrect—it was African-American athlete Cornelius Johnson who was believed to have been snubbed by Hitler, who left the medal ceremonies after awarding a German and a Finn medal. Hitler claimed it was not a snub, but that he had official business to attend to which caused him to depart. On reports that Hitler had deliberately avoided acknowledging his victories, and had refused to shake his hand, Owens recounted:
"When I passed the Chancellor he arose, waved his hand at me, and I waved back at him. I think the writers showed bad taste in criticizing the man of the hour in Germany." He also stated: "Hitler didn't snub me — it was FDR who snubbed me. The president didn't even send me a telegram."
Hitler was criticized for this and the Olympic committee officials insisted that he greet each and every medalist, or none at all. Hitler did not attend any of the medal presentations which followed, including the one after Jesse Owens won his four medals, and met with German winners outside the stadium afterwards. [ 158 ] [ 159 ]
- Collaboration with the Axis Powers during World War II
- German resistance
- Glossary of German military terms
- Glossary of Nazi Germany
- List of Nazi Party leaders and officials
- Nazi architecture
- Nazi rule over the Danube River
- Nazi songs
- Nazi talking dogs
- Orders, decorations, and medals of Nazi Germany
- Sino-German cooperation (1911–1941)
- ^ in 1939, before Germany acquired control of the last two regions which had been in its control before the Versailles Treaty, Alsace-Lorraine, Danzig and the part of West Prussia colloquially known as the "Polish Corridor", it had an area was 633786 sq. km., Statistisches Bundesamt (Federal Statistical Office), Statistisches Jahrbuch 2006 für die Bundesrepublik Deutschland , p. 34.
- ^ Gesetz über das Staatsoberhaupt des Deutschen Reichs , 1 August 1934:
"§ 1 The office of the Reichspräsident is merged with that of the Reichskanzler. Therefore the previous rights of the Reichspräsident pass over to the Führer and Reichskanzler Adolf Hitler. He names his deputy."
- ^ The "Third Reich" was an informal term that the Nazis adopted from a 1923 novel by Arthur Moeller van den Bruck . It suggested Germany had reached the next step beyond the "First Reich" (the Holy Roman Empire , 800-1806) and the "Second Reich" (the German Empire , 1871–1918). See Reich for more information.
- ^ Evans, Richard J. The Third Reich in Power (2005) Ch. 1.
- ^ Albert Speer asked "why was I willing to abide by the almost hypnotic impression Hitler's speech had made upon me?"; Inside the Third Reich: Memoirs (1980) p. 19. William L. Shirer , The Rise and Fall of the Third Reich: a History of Nazi Germany (1960) makes the hypnotic point four times (pp. 109, 371, 840, 1039). Correlli Barnett states "Hitler too possessed until the end a similar hypnotic power of personality which enabled him to brain-wash the sceptical and disillusioned" Hitler's Generals (1989) p. 2.
- ^ Kershaw, Ian. The "Hitler Myth": Image and Reality in the Third Reich (2001) p. 253.
- ^ Leitz, Christian (2004). Nazi Foreign Policy, 1933-1941: the Road to Global War
- ^ Flynn, Matthew J. First Strike: Preemptive War in Modern History (2008) p. 105.
- ^ David W. Del Testa, Florence Lemoine, John Strickland (2003). Government leaders, military rulers, and political activists . Greenwood Publishing Group. p.83. ISBN 1573561533
- ^ Newman, Leonard S. and Erber, Ralph. Understanding Genocide: The Social Psychology of the Holocaust (2002) p. 244.
- ^ Schmitz-Berning, Cornelia (2000). Vokabular des Nationalsozialismus . Walter de Gruyter GmbH & Co. KG, 10875 Berlin, pp. 159-160. (in German) 
- ^ Ferdinand, Czernin. Versailles, 1919: The Forces, Events and Personalities that Shaped the Treaty (1964)
- ^ This was the notorious Article 231, the so-called War Guilt Clause
- ^ All of Germany's foreign colonies were forfeited. The part of Germany known as the Rhineland, bordering France, was demilitarized: Germany was forbidden to have troops or military installations there.
- ^ Article 231 of Versailles stipulated that Germany bore sole responsibility for the outbreak of the war.
- ^ Germany would be limited to an army of 100,000 men, with mandatory lengthy terms of enlistment to prevent the establishment of reserves. The General Staff was to be dissolved along with certain military colleges. Tanks were forbidden. Limits were placed on the navy in the form of the size and types of ships permitted, including the prohibition of any submarines. A military air force was likewise forbidden.
- ^ “Der Führer an das deutsche Volk 22. Juni 1941,” in Philipp Bouhler (ed.), "Der großdeutsche Freiheitskampf. Reden Adolf Hitlers, Vol. 3" (Munich: Franz Eher, 1942), pp. 51-61.
- ^ Fulbrook, Mary. The Divided Nation: A History of Germany, 1918-1990 (1992) p. 45.
- ^ The Nazi Party did not achieve a parliamentary majority, however, before Hitler became Chancellor of Germany. The Nazis' plurality diminished from 230 seats to 196 seats after the federal election of November 1932 .
- ^ Hakim, Joy (1995). A History of Us: War, Peace and all that Jazz . pp. 100–104. ISBN 0-19-509514-6 .
- ^ a b Evans, Richard. The Coming of the Third Reich (2003) p. 441.
- ^ See respective articles
- ^ Kershaw, Ian. Hitler (2008) p. 306.
- ^ Wheeler-Bennett. Nemesis of Power: The German Army in Politics 1918-1945 (2005) pp. 319–320.
- ^ GERMANY: Second Revolution? , TIME Magazine , July 2, 1934
- ^ Kershaw, Ian. Hitler (2008), pp 309-312.
- ^ Kershaw, Ian. Hitler (2008), p 315.
- ^ Read, Anthony (2003). "The Devils Disciples", WW Norton & Co. ISBN 0-393-04800-4
- ^ Henry Maitles NEVER AGAIN!: A review of David Goldhagen, Hitlers Willing Executioners: Ordinary Germans and the Holocaust , further referenced to Almond, G. The German Resistance Movement , Current History 10 (1946), pp. 409–527.
- ^ Clay, David (1994). Contending with Hitler: Varieties of German Resistance in the Third Reich , p. 122. ISBN 0-521-41459-8
- ^ Mitchell Otis C. (1988). Hitler's Nazi State: The Years of Dictatorial Rule, 1934-1945 , p. 217.
- ^ Hoffmann, Peter (1977, 1996). The History of the German Resistance, 1933-1945 p. xiii.
- ^ Maurer, Karl-Wilhelm (2008) (in German). Die Hessisch-thüringische 251. Infanterie-division . Norderstedt: Books on Demand GmbH. p. 14. ISBN 978-3-8370-3111-9 . http://books.google.de/books?id=OL3AvYS68TwC&pg=PA14 .
- ^ "NDR Online - Kultur - Geschichte- Chronik Helgolands 1914 - 1952" . http://www1.ndr.de/kultur/geschichte/helgolandchronik2.html . Retrieved 2010-08-22 . [ link morto ]
- ^ "British Military Aviation in 1940 - Part 1" . Rafmuseum.org.uk . http://www.rafmuseum.org.uk/milestones-of-flight/british_military/1940.cfm . Retrieved 2009-09-16 .
- ^ Monday, Apr. 01, 1940 (1940-04-01). "IN THE AIR: Raid on Sylt - TIME" . TIME<! . http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,885838,00.html . Retrieved 2009-09-16 .
- ^ "SC Military Museum" . Scguard.com. Archived from the original on 2008-01-03 . http://web.archive.org/web/20080103191658/http://www.scguard.com/museum/ww23940.html . Retrieved 2009-09-16 .
- ^ Quester,George "Bargaining and Bombing During World War II in Europe," World Politics, Vol. 15, No. 3 (Apr., 1963), pp. 421, 425. Published by: The Johns Hopkins University Press
- ^ "History - British Bombing Strategy in World War Two" . BBC . http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/worldwars/wwtwo/area_bombing_02.shtml . Retrieved 2009-09-16 .
- ^ Chronological Summary of Royal Air Force Bomber Command Operations – Your Archives
- ^ " Siege of Leningrad (Soviet history) ". Encyclopædia Britannica.
- ^ "Introduction" U-Boat Operations of the Second World War—Vol 1 by Wynn, Kenneth, 1998 p. 1
- ^ a b The Russian Academy of Science Rossiiskaia Akademiia nauk. Liudskie poteri SSSR v period vtoroi mirovoi voiny:sbornik statei. Sankt-Peterburg 1995 ISBN 5-86789-023-6 (figure of 13.7 million includes 2.0 million deaths in the annexed territories which are also included with Poland's war dead)
- ^ Wojciech Materski and Tomasz Szarota. Polska 1939–1945. Straty osobowe i ofiary represji pod dwiema okupacjami. Institute of National Remembrance (IPN) Warszawa 2009 ISBN 978-83-7629-067-6
- ^ "Hitler's War; Hitler's Plans for Eastern Europe" . http://www.dac.neu.edu/holocaust/Hitlers_Plans.htm . Retrieved 2008-06-30 .
- ^ "Hitler's Plans For Eastern Europe" . Dac.neu.edu . http://www.dac.neu.edu/holocaust/Hitlers_Plans.htm . Retrieved 2011-06-13 .
- ^ Richard Overy , The Dictators: Hitler's Germany, Stalin's Russia , p543 ISBN 0-393-02030-4
- ^ "''Nazi Conspiracy & Aggression Volume I Chapter XIII Germanization & Spoliation''" . Fundamentalbass.home.mindspring.com . http://fundamentalbass.home.mindspring.com/c9052.htm . Retrieved 2011-06-13 .
- ^ Richard C. Lukas , Forgotten Holocaust p18 ISBN 0-7818-0528-7
- ^ Lynn H. Nicholas , Cruel World: The Children of Europe in the Nazi Web p. 207-9 ISBN 0-679-77663-X
- ^ Lynn H. Nicholas , Cruel World: The Children of Europe in the Nazi Web p. 215 ISBN 0-679-77663-X
- ^ Lebensraum, Aryanization, Germanization and Judenrein, Judenfrei: concepts in the holocaust or shoah
- ^ " Germany's forgotten victims ". Guardian.co.uk. October 22, 2003.
- ^ Schrijvers, Peter (2001). The Crash of Ruin: American Combat Soldiers in Europe during World War II . NYU Press. pp.
- ^ Erickson, John (1983). The Road to Berlin: Stalin's War with Germany: Volume 2 . Weidenfeld and Nicolson. p. 586. ISBN 0297772384 .
- ^ Beevor, Antony (2002). Berlin - The Downfall 1945 . Viking-Penguin Books. p. 275. ISBN 0-670-88695-5 .
- ^ Erickson (1983) p. 590.
- ^ Kershaw, Ian (2008). Hitler: A Biography , WW Norton & Co. pp. 943-946. ISBN 0-393-06757-2 .
- ^ Kershaw (2008) p. 946.
- ^ Kershaw (2008) pp. 954, 955.
- ^ Beevor (2002), p. 386.
- ^ "World War II: Combatants and Casualties (1937–1945)" . http://web.jjay.cuny.edu/~jobrien/reference/ob62.html . Retrieved 2007-04-20 . [ link morto ]
- ^ " The Holocaust ". United States Holocaust Memorial Museum.
- ^ Auerbach, Hellmuth (1992). "Opfer der nationalsozialistischen Gewaltherrschaft". In Benz, Wolfgang. Legenden, Lügen, Vorurteile. Ein Wörterbuch zur Zeitgeschichte . Dtv. p. 116. ISBN 342304666X .
- ^ Pohl, Dieter (2003). Verfolgung und Massenmord in der NS-Zeit 1939-1945 . Darmstadt: Wissenschaftliche Buchgesellschaft. p. 153. ISBN 3-534-15158-5 .
- ^ Rulers and victims: the Russians in the Soviet Union . Geoffrey A. Hosking (2006). Harvard University Press . p.242. ISBN 0-674-02178-9
- ^ "Leaders mourn Soviet wartime dead" . BBC News . 9 May 2005 . http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/europe/4530565.stm . Retrieved 10 April 2010 .
- ^ The World's Wasted Wealth 2: Save Our Wealth, Save Our Environment . JW Smith (1994). p.204. ISBN 0-9624423-2-1
- ^ Geoffrey A. Hosking (2006). Rulers and victims: the Russians in the Soviet Union . Harvard University Press . p.242. ISBN 0-674-02178-9
- ^ " REFUGEES: Save Us! Save Us! ". Time. July 9, 1979.
- ^ " Who benefits from global violence and war: uncovering a destructive system ". Marc Pilisuk, Jennifer Achord Rountree (2008). Greenwood Publishing Group . p.136. ISBN 0-275-99435-X
- ^ William I. Hitchcock, The Struggle for Europe: The Turbulent History of a Divided Continent 1945 to the Present (2004) pp 13-39
- ^ Robert E. Conot, Justice at Nuremberg (1993)
- ^ Richard Overy, 1995, Why the allies won , Random House, p. 205.
- ^ a b c d e f "Slouching Towards Utopia?: The Economic History of the Twentieth Century – XV. Nazis and Soviets- J. Bradford DeLong – University of California at Berkeley and NBER(February 1997)" . http://econ161.berkeley.edu/TCEH/Slouch_Purge15.html . Retrieved 2007-08-15 .
- ^ "econ161.berkeley.edu" . http://econ161.berkeley.edu/TCEH/Slouch_Purge15.html . Retrieved 2007-08-15 .
- ^ a b "Nazis and Soviets" . Econ161.berkeley.edu . http://econ161.berkeley.edu/TCEH/Slouch_Purge15.html . Retrieved 2009-09-16 .
- ^ Peter Temin (November 1991). Economic History Review, New Series 44 (4): 573–593
- ^ John C. Beyer; Stephen A. Schneider. "Forced Labour under Third Reich - Part 1" (PDF). Nathan Associates and John C. Beyer; Stephen A. Schneider. "Forced Labour under Third Reich - Part 2" (PDF). Nathan Associates
- ^ Bischof, Günter, "The Historical Roots of a Special Relationship: Austro-German Relations Between Hegemony and Equality". In Unequal Partners, ed. Harald von Riekhoff and Hanspeter Neuhold. San Francisco: Westview Press, 1993
- ^ "Hitler's Plan" . Dac.neu.edu . http://www.dac.neu.edu/holocaust/Hitlers_Plans.htm . Retrieved 2009-09-16 .
- ^ "ess.uwe.ac.uk" . ess.uwe.ac.uk . http://www.ess.uwe.ac.uk/genocide/ssnur1.htm . Retrieved 2009-09-16 .
- ^ Katz. "Jews and Freemasons in Europe". In Israel Gutman. The Encyclopedia of the Holocaust . p. vol. 2, p. 531. ISBN 978-0-02-897166-7 OCLC 20594356 .
- ^ Bender, Roger James; Taylor, Hugh Page (1971). Uniforms, Organization, and History of the Waffen-SS, Volume 2 . RJ Bender Publishing. p. 23.
- ^ a b c d e f Perry Biddiscombe "Dangerous Liaisons: The Anti-Fraternization Movement in the US Occupation Zones of Germany and Austria, 1945–1948", Journal of Social History 34.3 (2001) 611–647. doi : 10.1353/jsh.2001.0002 .
- ^ Daniel Goldhagen, Hitler's Willing Executioners (p. 290) - "2.8 million young, healthy Soviet POWs" killed by the Germans, "mainly by starvation ... in less than eight months" of 1941-42, before "the decimation of Soviet POWs ... was stopped" and the Germans "began to use them as laborers" (emphasis added).
- ^ United States Holocaust Memorial Museum "ushmm.org" . http://www.ushmm.org/wlc/article.php?lang=en&ModuleId=10005394 . Retrieved 2007-08-15 .
- ^ "Ein Konzentrationslager für politische Gefangene" . Münchner Neueste Nachrichten. 1933-03-21 . http://www.mazal.org/archive/DACHPHO/Dach02.htm . Retrieved 2009-09-16 . Translation: "The Munich Chief of Police, Himmler, has issued the following press announcement: On Wednesday the first concentration camp is to be opened in Dachau with an accommodation for 5000 persons. All Communists and—where necessary—Reichsbanner and Social Democratic functionaries who endanger state security are to be concentrated here, as in the long run it is not possible to keep individual functionaries in the state prisons without overburdening these prisons, and on the other hand these people cannot be released because attempts have shown that they persist in their efforts to agitate and organize as soon as they are released."
- ^ Berghahn, Volker R. (1999). "Germans and Poles 1871–1945". Germany and Eastern Europe: Cultural Identities and Cultural Differences (Rodopi).
- ^ Hitler's Plans for Eastern Europe . Selections from: "Poland under Nazi Occupation", by Janusz Gumkowkski and Kazimierz Leszczynski
- ^ Heinrich Himmler Speech before SS Group Leaders Posen, Poland 1943 . Hanover College Department of History
- ^ Hans-Walter Schmuhl. The Kaiser Wilhelm Institute for Anthropology, Human Heredity, and Eugenics, 1927-1945: crossing boundaries. Volume 259 of Boston studies in the philosophy of science. Coutts MyiLibrary. SpringerLink Humanities, Social Science & LawAuthor. Springer, 2008. ISBN 140206599X , 9781402065996, p. 348-349
- ^ Robert Gellately. Revieved works: Vom Generalplan Ost zum Generalsiedlungsplan by Czeslaw Madajczyk. Der "Generalplan Ost." Hauptlinien der nationalsozialistischen Planungs- und Vernichtungspolitik by Mechtild Rössler; Sabine Schleiermacher. Central European History , Vol. 29, No. 2 (1996), pp. 270-274
- ^ Roger Chickering, Stig Förster, Bernd Greiner, German Historical Institute (Washington, DC) (2005). A world at total war: global conflict and the politics of destruction, 1937-1945 . Cambridge University Press. p.65. ISBN 0-521-83432-5
- ^ Joseph Poprzeczny, Odilo Globocnik, Hitler's Man in the East , McFarland, 2004, ISBN 0786416254 , Google Print, p.186
- ^ Tooze, Adam , The Wages of Destruction , Viking, 2007, pp. 476–85, 538–49, ISBN 0-670-03826-1
- ^ William J. Duiker (2009). Contemporary World History . Cengage Learning. p.132. ISBN 0-495-57271-3
- ^ Dan Stone (2010). Histories of the Holocaust . Oxford University Press. p.212. ISBN 0-19-956680-1 .
- ^ Michael Dorland (2009). Cadaverland: inventing a pathology of catastrophe for Holocaust survival : the limits of medical knowledge and memory in France . UPNE. p.6. ISBN 1584657847
- ^ Kershaw, Ian. 2000, 4th edition. The Nazi Dictatorship; Problems & Perspectives of Interpretation. New York: Oxford University Press. P. 111.
- ^ Kershaw, Ian. 2000, 4th edition. The Nazi Dictatorship; Problems & Perspectives of Interpretation. P. 111.
- ^ a b Kershaw, Ian. 2000, 4th edition. The Nazi Dictatorship; Problems & Perspectives of Interpretation. p. 111.
- ^ Pauley, Bruce F. Hitler, Stalin and Mussolini: Totalitarianism in the Twentieth Century. 2nd Edition. 2003. Wheeling, Illinois, USA: Harlan Davidson Inc. Pp. 118.
- ^ Heymen, Norbert; Pfister, Gertrud; Wolff-Brembach, Irmhild. Erziehung zur Wehrhaftigkeit im Sportunterricht. In “Schule und Unterricht im Dritten Reich.” Neuwied: Luchterhand, 1989. Pp 345.
- ^ Gies, Horst. Der Geschichtsunterricht im Dritten Reich als völkische Weihestunde und historische Nabelschau. In “Schule und Unterricht im Dritten Reich.” Neuwied: Luchterhand, 1989. Pp 216.
- ^ Kollmann, Michaela.“Schulbücher im Nationalsozialismus: NS-Propaganda, “Rassenhygiene” und Manipulation.” Saarbrücken: VDM Verlag Dr. Müller, 2006. Pp 162-163.
- ^ Pauley, 2003. Pp. 118
- ^ Gies, Horst. Der Geschichtsunterricht im Dritten Reich als völkische Weihestunde und historische Nabelschau. In “Schule und Unterricht im Dritten Reich.” Neuwied: Luchterhand, 1989. Pp 210.
- ^ Hansen, Heinrich and von Leers, Dr. Johannes. “Der deutsche Lehrer als Kulturschöpfer.” Frankfurt am Main: Verlag Moritz Diesterweg, 1939. Pp 164.
- ^ a b c d Pauley, 2003. Pp. 119.
- ^ Henrich Hansen, Die Presse des NS-Lehrerbundes.” Frankfurt am Main: Diesterweg, 1937. Pp 1.
- ^ Heymen, Norbert; Pfister, Gertrud; Wolff-Brembach, Irmhild. Erziehung zur Wehrhaftigkeit im Sportunterricht. In “Schule und Unterricht im Dritten Reich.” Neuwied: Luchterhand, 1989. Pp 346.
- ^ David Stewart Hull, Film in the Third Reich (1969) p. 51
- ^ Richard Grunberger, The 12-Year Reich , p 18, ISBN 003-076435-1
- ^ Richard Grunberger, The 12-Year Reich , p 79, ISBN 003-076435-1
- ^ Claudia Koonz , The Nazi Conscience , p 71 ISBN 0-674-01172-4
- ^ a b Nazi Medicine and Public Health Policy Robert N. Proctor, Dimensions: A Journal of Holocaust Studies.
- ^ a b Proctor, Robert N (1999). The Nazi War on Cancer . Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press. p.
- ^ The Nazi Census, Götz Aly and Karl Heinz Roth, Temple University Press, 2004
- ^ a b c "spartacus.schoolnet.co.uk" . http://www.spartacus.schoolnet.co.uk/GERwomen.htm . Retrieved 2007-08-15 .
- ^ William L. O'Neill, A Democracy At War: America's Fight At Home and Abroad in World War II , p 99-100 ISBN 0-02-923678-9
- ^ Pauley, 2003. P. 119
- ^ Richard Overy , The Dictators: Hitler's Germany, Stalin's Russia , p248 ISBN 0-393-02030-4
- ^ Leila J. Rupp , Mobilizing Women for war , p45-6, ISBN 0691046492
- ^ " NS-Frauenwarte: Paper of the National Socialist Women's League "
- ^ Leila J. Rupp, Mobilizing Women for War , p 45, ISBN 0691046492
- ^ " May 1937 - Frauen Warte "
- ^ Richard Grunberger, The 12-Year Reich , p 278, ISBN 003-076435-1
- ^ " Material from "Das deutsche Mädel"
- ^ Leila J. Rupp , Mobilizing Women for War , p 45, ISBN 0691046492
- ^ Arvo L. Vercamer " HJ-Landdienst "
- ^ Cinzia Romani, Tainted Goddesses: Female Film Stars of the Third Reich p20 ISBN 0-9627613-1-1
- ^ Richard Grunberger , The 12-Year Reich , p 382, ISBN 03-076435-1
- ^ Richard Grunberger, The 12-Year Reich, p 246, ISBN 03-076435-1
- ^ Himmler's Response to Complaints regarding his "Procreation Decree" of October 28, 1939 (January 30, 1940)
- ^ For a more elaborate discussion, see William L. Shirer , The Rise and Fall of the Third Reich (Touchstone Edition) (New York: Simon & Schuster, 1990), ISBN 0-671-72868-7 , section titled "Education in the Third Reich" (pp. 248–256), esp. pp. 254–256. The following quotation from p. 254 typifies the Shirer narrative:
I listened to women leaders of the BDM—they were invariably of the plainer type and usually unmarried—lecture their young charges on the moral and patriotic duty of bearing children for Hitler's Reich—within wedlock if possible, but without it if necessary.
- ^ George Lachmann Mosse , Nazi culture: intellectual, cultural and social life in the Third Reich p 277 ISBN 978-0-299-19304-1
- ^ Leila J. Rupp, Mobilizing Women for War , p 125, ISBN 0691046492
- ^ Rupp, Leila J. (1978). Mobilizing Women for War: German and American Propaganda, 1939–1945 . Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press. pp. 124–5. ISBN 0691046492 . OCLC 3379930 .
- ^ Potts, Malcolm; Diggory, Peter; Peel, John (1977). Abortion . Cambridge; New York: Cambridge University Press. p.
- ^ "History of Contraception" . Glowm.com . http://www.glowm.com/index.html?p=glowm.cml/section_view&articleid=375#r88 . Retrieved 2009-09-16 .
- ^ JONATHAN OLSEN "How Green Were the Nazis? Nature, Environment, and Nation in the Third Reich (review)" Technology and Culture – Volume 48, Number 1, January 2007, pp. 207–208
- ^ Review of Franz-Josef Brueggemeier, Marc Cioc, and Thomas Zeller, eds, "How Green Were the Nazis?: Nature, Environment, and Nation in the Third Reich" Wilko Graf von Hardenberg, H-Environment, H-Net Reviews, October, 2006.
- ^ Thomas R. DeGregori (2002). Bountiful Harvest: Technology, Food Safety, and the Environment . Cato Institute. pp. p153. ISBN 1930865317 .
- ^ Arnold Arluke, Clinton Sanders (1996). Regarding Animals . Temple University Press. pp. p132. ISBN 1566394414 .
- ^ Hartmut M. Hanauske-Abel, Not a slippery slope or sudden subversion: German medicine and National Socialism in 1933 , BMJ 1996; pp. 1453–1463 (7 December)
- ^ "kaltio.fi" . http://www.kaltio.fi/index.php?494 . Retrieved 2007-08-15 .
- ^ Robert Proctor (1999). The Nazi War on Cancer . Princeton University Press. pp. p5. ISBN 0691070512 .
- ^ Martin Kitchen (2006). A History of Modern Germany, 1800-2000 . Blackwell Publishing. pp. p278. ISBN 1405100400 .
- ^ Seymour Rossel (1992). The Holocaust: The World and the Jews, 1933-1945 . Behrman House, Inc. pp. p79. ISBN 0874415268 .
- ^ Bruce Braun, Noel Castree (1998). Remaking Reality: Nature at the Millenium . Routledge. pp. p92. ISBN 0415144930 . [ sic ]
- ^ C. Ray Greek, Jean Swingle Greek (2002). Sacred Cows and Golden Geese: The Human Cost of Experiments on Animals . Continuum International Publishing Group. pp. p90. ISBN 0826414028 .
- ^ Boria Sax (2000). Animals in the Third Reich: Pets, Scapegoats, and the Holocaust . Continuum International Publishing Group. pp. p41. ISBN 0826412890 .
- ^ Scobie, Alexander. Hitler's State Architecture: The Impact of Classical Antiquity. University Park: Pennsylvania State University Press, 1990. ISBN 0-271-00691-9 . Pp. 92.
- ^ Kinobesuche in Deutschland 1925 bis 2004 Spitzenorganisation der Filmwirtschaft e. V
- ^ a b Cinema of Germany#1933-1945 Film industry in the Third Reich
- ^ "Nederlanderse-entertainer-sin-Duitsland" (in Dutch). Die Welt . 17 April 2010.
- ^ Hyde Flippo, The 1936 Berlin Olympics: Hitler and Jesse Owens German Myth 10 from German.about.com
- ^ Rick Shenkman, Adolf Hitler, Jesse Owens and the Olympics Myth of 1936 13 February 2002 from History News Network (article excerpted from Rick Shenkman's Legends, Lies and Cherished Myths of American History . Publisher: William Morrow & Co; 1st ed edition (November 1988) ISBN 0-688-06580-5 ). Ironically, it was US President Franklin Delano Roosevelt who declined to invite Owens to the White House or to congratulate him in any way. See "Getting to Know the Racial Views of Our Past Presidents: What about FDR?" Journal of Blacks in Higher Education 38 (2002–2003, Winter), 44–46.
Surveys and reference
- Karl Dietrich Bracher . The German Dictatorship; The Origins, Structure, and Effects of National Socialism ; New York, Praeger 1970.
- Michael Burleigh. The Third Reich: A New History , 2002. ISBN 0-8090-9326-X . Standard scholarly history, 1918–1945.
- Richard J. Evans . The Coming of the Third Reich . ISBN 0-14-100975-6 , standard scholarly history; The Third Reich in Power 2005 ISBN 1-59420-074-2 ; The Third Reich at war 1939-1945 (2009)
- Ian Kershaw . The Nazi Dictatorship: Problems and Perspectives of Interpretation , 4th ed. London: Arnold, 2000. ISBN 0-340-76028-1
- Christian Leitz, ed. The Third Reich: The Essential Readings . Oxford, UK: Blackwell Publishers, 1999. ISBN 0-631-20700-7 .
- Mommsen, Hans. The Third Reich between Vision and Reality: New Perspectives on German History, 1918-1945 (2001) online edition
- Overy, Richard. The Dictators: Hitler's Germany and Stalin's Russia (2004)
- Roderick, Stacke. Hitler's Germany: Origins, Interpretations, Legacies (1999)
- Scheck, Raffael. “Lecture Notes, Germany and Europe, 1871-1945” (2008) full text online , a brief textbook by a leading scholar
- William L. Shirer . The Rise and Fall of the Third Reich . ISBN 0-671-72868-7
- Zentner, Christian and Bedürftig, Friedemann, eds. The Encyclopedia of the Third Reich. 2 vol. Macmillan, 1991. 1120 pp.
- Overy, RJ The Nazi Economic Recovery 1932-1938 (1996)
- Adam Tooze . The Wages of Destruction: The Making and the Breaking of the Nazi Economy . New York: Viking, 2006. ISBN 978-0-670-03826-8 .
- Henry Ashby Turner . German Big Business and the Rise of Hitler . New York: Oxford University Press, 1985. ISBN 0-19-503492-9 .
- Alfred Sohn-Rethel . Economy and Class Structure of German Fascism . London, CSE Bks, 1978. ISBN 0-906336-00-7
- Bullock, Alan. Hitler: A Study in Tyranny, (1962) online edition
- Geary, Dick. Hitler and Nazism, (2000) 97 pages
- Kershaw, Ian. Hitler, 1889-1936: Hubris. vol. 1. 1999. 700 pp. ; vol 2: Hitler, 1936-1945: Nemesis. 2000. 832 pp.; the leading scholarly biography.
- Kershaw, Ian. The "Hitler Myth": Image and Reality in the Third Reich. (1987). 297 pp.
- Nicholls, David. Adolf Hitler: A Biographical Companion. ABC-CLIO, 2000. 344 pp.
Holocaust, ideology and racism
- Gisela Bock "Racism and Sexism in Nazi Germany: Motherhood, Compulsory Sterilization, and the State" from When Biology Became Destiny: Women in Weimar and Nazi Germany edited by Renate Bridenthal, Atina Grossmann, and Marion Kaplan, New York: Monthly Review Press, 1984.
- Friedlander, Saul. Nazi Germany and the Jews: Volume 1: The Years of Persecution 1933-1939 (1998); The Years of Extermination: Nazi Germany and the Jews, 1939-1945 (2007), the standard history
- Gilbert, Martin. The Routledge Atlas of the Holocaust (2002)
- Heinz Höhne . The Order of the Death's Head: The Story of Hitler's SS. Translated by Richard Barry. London: Penguin Books, 1971.
- Claudia Koonz . The Nazi Conscience . Cambridge, Mass.: The Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, 2003.
- Niewyk, Donald, and Francis Nicosia. The Columbia Guide to the Holocaust. (2000) online edition
- Detlev Peukert . Inside Nazi Germany: Conformity, Opposition and Racism in Everyday Life . London: Batsford, 1987. ISBN 0-7134-5217-X .
- Florian Ruhs: Foreign Workers in the Second World War. The Ordeal of Slovenians in Germany. , in: aventinus nova Nr. 32 [29.05.2011].
- Martin Broszat . The Hitler State: The Foundation and Development Of The Internal Structure Of The Third Reich . Translated by John W. Hiden. London: Longman, 1981. ISBN 0-582-49200-9 .
- Guido Knopp . Hitler's Henchmen . 1998. Sutton Publishing, 2005. ISBN 0-7509-3781-5 .
- Frank McDonough, Hitler and the Rise of The Nazi Party, Pearson Longman, 2003.
- Anthony Read. The Devils Disciples: The Devil's Disciples: Hitler's Inner Circle . WW Norton & Co., 2003. ISBN 0-393-04800-4 .
- Ronald Smelser and Rainer Zitelmann , The Nazi Elite New York University Press, 1993, ISBN 0-8147-7950-6 .
Local and regional
- William Sheridan Allen . The Nazi Seizure of Power : the Experience Of A Single German Town, 1922–1945 New York: F. Watts, 1984. ISBN 0-531-09935-0 .
- Paul Garson . Album of the Damned: Snapshots from the Third Reich 2008 ISBN 978-0-89733-576-8 , Academy Chicago Publishers
Military and foreign policy
- Sir John Wheeler-Bennett . The Nemesis of Power: The German Army in Politics 1918–1945 , Palgrave Macmillan: London: 1953, 1964, 2005 ISBN 1-4039-1812-0 .
- Andreas Hillgruber Germany and the two World Wars , Cambridge, Mass. : Harvard University Press, 1981 ISBN 0-674-35321-8 .
- David Irving . Hitler's War . London: Focal Point Publications. ISBN 1-872197-10-8 .
- Norman Rich. Hitler's War Aims: Ideology, the Nazi State, and the Course of Expansion . vol. 1. 1972. 352 pp.; vol. 2: Hitler's War Aims: The Establishment of the New Order . 1974. 548 pp.; definitive analysis of Nazi German war aims in World War II.
- Hamerow, Theodore S. On the Road to the Wolf's Lair: German Resistance to Hitler (1997) 454 pages
- RP Heller. The Flame of Freedom: The German Struggle against Hitler. (1994) focus on Army online edition
- Roger Moorhouse . Killing Hitler . London: Jonathan Cape, 2006. ISBN 0-224-07121-1 .
- Thomsett, Michael C. The German Opposition to Hitler: The Resistance, the Underground, and Assassination Plots, 1938-1945 (2nd ed 2007) 278 pages
Society and culture
- Cosner, Shaaron and Cosner, Victoria. Women under the Third Reich: A Biographical Dictionary. Greenwood, 1998. 203 pp.
- Richard Grunberger . A Social History of the Third Reich 1974 ISBN 0-14-013675-4 .
- Claudia Koonz . Mothers In The Fatherland: Women, the Family, and Nazi Politics . New York: St. Martin's Press, 1987. ISBN 0-312-54933-4 .
- Eric Michaud , The Cult of Art in Nazi Germany , translated by Janet Lloyd, Stanford: Stanford University Press, 2004. ISBN 0-8047-4327-4 .
- Rempel, Gerhard. Hitler's Children: The Hitler Youth and the SS, (1989) online edition
- David Schoenbaum Hitler's Social Revolution; Class and Status in Nazi Germany, 1933-1939 , Garden City, NY Doubleday, 1966.
- Stibbe, Matthew. Women in the Third Reich, 2003, 208 pp.
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