Nicolau Copérnico

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Nicolau Copérnico

Retrato, 1580, Toru? Old Town City Hall
Nascido 19 de fevereiro de 1473 (1473/02/19)
Thorn (Toru?), Prússia Real , Reino da Polônia
Morreu 24 de maio de 1543 (1543/05/24) (70 anos)
Frauenburg (Frombork), Prince-bispado de Warmia , Prússia Real, Reino da Polônia
Campos Matemática , astronomia , direito canônico , medicina, economia
Alma mater Cracóvia University , Universidade de Bolonha , Universidade de Pádua , Universidade de Ferrara
Conhecido por Heliocentrismo , Lei de Copérnico
Assinatura

Nicolau Copérnico ( alemão : Nikolaus Kopernikus; italiano : Nicolò Copernico; polonês : Sobre o som Miko?aj Kopernik em sua juventude, Niclas Koppernigk; [1] 19 fevereiro de 1473 - 24 de Maio 1543) foi um renascimento astrônomo e a primeira pessoa a formular uma abrangente heliocêntrica cosmologia que deslocou a Terra do centro do universo . [2]

Livro de época de Copérnico, De revolutionibus orbium coelestium (Sobre as Revoluções das Esferas Celestes), publicado pouco antes de sua morte em 1543, é frequentemente considerado como o ponto de partida da moderna astronomia e da definição de epifania , que começou a revolução científica . Seu modelo heliocêntrico , com o Sol no centro do universo, demonstrou que os movimentos observados dos corpos celestes podem ser explicadas sem colocar a Terra em repouso no centro do universo. Sua obra estimulou ainda mais investigações científicas, tornando-se um marco na história da ciência que é muitas vezes referida como a revolução copernicana .

Entre os grandes polímatas do Renascimento , Copérnico foi um matemático , astrônomo , jurista com um doutorado em direito, médico , quadrilíngüe poliglota , estudioso clássicos , tradutor , artista , [3] clérigo católico , governador, diplomata e economista .

Conteúdo

Vida

Thorn berço (ul. Kopernika 15, à esquerda). Juntamente com a casa sem nenhum. 17 (direita), que constitui a Muzeum Miko?aja Kopernika.

Nicolau Copérnico nasceu em 19 de fevereiro de 1473 na cidade de Espinho , na província de Prússia Real , na Coroa do Reino da Polônia . [4] [5]

Seu pai era um comerciante de Cracóvia e sua mãe era filha de um comerciante rico Thorn. Nicolaus era o caçula de quatro filhos. Seu irmão Andreas (Andrew) tornou-se um agostiniano cânone em Frauenburg (Frombork). Sua irmã Barbara, em homenagem a sua mãe, tornou-se um beneditino freira e, em seus últimos anos (ela morreu depois de 1517), priora de um convento no colmo (Kulm) (Che?mno). Sua irmã Katharina casou com o empresário e vereador Thorn Barthel Gertner e deixou cinco filhos, que Copérnico cuidadas até o fim de sua vida. [6]

Copérnico nunca se casou ou teve filhos.

"Para o fim de 1542, ele foi tomado de apoplexia e paralisia." Ele morreu em 24 de Maio de 1543, no dia em que ele foi presenteado com uma cópia antecipada do seu De revolutionibus orbium coelestium . [7]

Família do pai

A família do pai pode ser atribuída a uma aldeia na Silésia perto Neiße (Nysa). O nome da vila foi por diversas vezes soletrado Kopernik, [8] Köppernig, Köppernick, e hoje Koperniki . No século 14, os membros da família começou a se mover para várias outras cidades da Silésia, na capital polaca, Cracóvia (Cracóvia, 1367), e Thorn (1400). O pai, provavelmente filho de Janeiro, veio da linha de Cracóvia. [9]

Nicolau foi nomeado após seu pai, que aparece nos registros pela primeira vez como um bem-sucedido comerciante que negociava com o cobre, vendê-lo principalmente em Danzig (Gdansk). [10] [11] Ele se mudou de Cracóvia para Thorn em torno de 1458. [12] Thorn, situado no rio Vístula , era naquele tempo envolvido nas Guerra Treze Anos (1454-1466) , em que o Reino da Polónia e da Confederação Prussiana , uma aliança de prussianos cidades, nobreza e do clero , lutou contra a Ordem Teutônica sobre o controle da região. Nesta guerra hanseáticas cidades como Danzig e Thorn, a cidade natal de Nicolau Copérnico, optou por apoiar o rei polonês, que prometeu respeitar a independência das cidades tradicional vasto, que a Ordem Teutônica havia desafiado. O pai de Nicolau era ativamente engajado na política do dia, e apoiou a Polônia e as cidades contra a Ordem Teutônica. [13] Em 1454 ele mediado as negociações entre a Polónia do Cardeal Zbigniew Ole?nicki e as cidades prussianas de reembolso dos empréstimos de guerra. Na Paz Segunda Thorn (1466) , a Ordem Teutônica formalmente renunciou todas as reivindicações para as províncias ocidentais, que, como Prússia Real permaneceu uma região da Polônia para os próximos 300 anos.

O pai se casou com Barbara Watzenrode, a mãe do astrônomo, entre 1461 e 1464. Ele morreu em algum momento entre 1483 e 1485. Após a morte do pai, tio materno jovem Nicolaus ", Lucas Watzenrode, o Jovem (1447-1512), levou o menino sob sua proteção e viu a sua educação e carreira.

Família da mãe

Tio materno de Copérnico, Lucas Watzenrode o Jovem

Mãe Nicolaus ", Barbara Watzenrode, era filha de Lucas Watzenrode o Elder e sua esposa Katherine (Modlibóg née). [14] [15] [16] Não se sabe muito sobre sua vida, mas acredita-se que morreram quando Nicolaus era um menino pequeno. Os Watzenrodes viera do Schweidnitz região (?widnica) da Silésia e se estabeleceu em Thorn após 1360, tornando-se membros proeminentes da cidade patrícia classe. [17] Através de relacionamentos as Watzenrodes dos familiares extensos por casamento, eles foram relacionados para famílias ricas de Thorn, Danzig e Elbing (Elbl?g), e para o proeminente Czapski , Dzia?y?ski , Konopacki e Ko?cielecki famílias nobres. [18] Os Modlibógs (literalmente, em polonês, "Ore a Deus") eram uma proeminente família católica polonesa que tinha sido bem conhecido na história da Polônia desde 1271. [16] Lucas e Katherine tiveram três filhos: Lucas Watzenrode, o Jovem, que se tornou patrono de Copérnico; Barbara, mãe do astrônomo, e Christina, que em 1459 se casou com o comerciante e presidente da Câmara de Espinho, Tiedeman von Allen.

Lucas Watzenrode o Velho era bem vista em Thorn como um homem devoto e um comerciante honesto, e ele era ativo politicamente. Ele era um adversário decidido dos Cavaleiros Teutônicos e um aliado do polonês Rei Casimiro IV Jagiellon . [19] Em 1453 ele era o delegado da Thorn na Graudenz conferência (Grudzi?dz), que planejava aliar as cidades da Confederação Prussiana com Casimir IV na sua subsequente guerra contra os Cavaleiros Teutônicos. [6] Durante a Guerra dos Treze Anos que se seguiu no ano seguinte, ele apoiou activamente o esforço de guerra com substanciais subsídios monetários, com a atividade política em Thorn e Danzig, e, pessoalmente, lutar em batalhas em diminuir (?asin) e Marienburg (Malbork). [20] Ele morreu em 1462.

Lucas Watzenrode, o Jovem , tio materno do astrônomo e patrono, foi educado na Universidade de Cracóvia (agora Jagiellonian University ) e nas universidades de Colônia e de Bolonha . Ele era um adversário amargo da Ordem Teutônica [21] [22] e seu Grão-Mestre, que certa vez se referiu a Watzenrode como "o diabo encarnado". [23] Em 1489 Watzenrode foi eleito Bispo de Warmia (Ermeland, Ermland) contra a preferência do rei Casimiro IV, que esperava para instalar seu próprio filho em que o assento. Como resultado, Watzenrode discutiu com o rei até a morte de Casimiro IV, três anos depois. [24] Watzenrode foi então capaz de formar relações estreitas com três sucessivos monarcas polonês: John Albert I , Alexander Jagiellon , e Sigismundo I o Velho . Ele era um amigo e conselheiro chave de cada governante, e sua influência muito fortalecido os laços entre Warmia e adequada Polônia. [25] [26] Watzenrode chegou a ser considerado o homem mais poderoso em Warmia e sua riqueza, conexões e influência permitido ele para garantir educação de Copérnico e sua carreira como um cânone em Frauenberg Catedral.

Línguas

Copérnico é postulada ter falado Latina , alemão e polonês com igual fluência. Ele também falou grego e italiano. [27] [28] [29] [30] A grande maioria das obras remanescentes de Copérnico são em latim , que em sua vida era a língua da academia na Europa. O latim era a língua oficial da Igreja Católica Romana e do tribunal da Polónia real, e, portanto, todas as cartas de Copérnico com a Igreja e com líderes poloneses foi na América.

Há sobreviver alguns documentos escritos por Copérnico em alemão. Transportadora Martin menciona isso como uma razão para considerar a linguagem nativa de Copérnico ter sido alemão. [31] Outros argumentos são de que Copérnico nasceu em uma cidade predominantemente de língua alemã e que, enquanto estudava Direito na Bolonha em 1496, ele assinou no alemão Natio (Natio Germanorum)-uma organização estudantil que, de acordo com seu Estatuto Social 1497, foi aberto a estudantes de todos os reinos e estados, cuja língua-mãe ("Muttersprache") era alemão. [32] No entanto, de acordo com o filósofo francês Alexandre Koyré , isso por si só não implica que Copérnico considerava-se alemão, já que os estudantes da Prússia e da Silésia foram rotineiramente colocados nessa categoria, que levou certos privilégios que lhe fizeram uma escolha natural para estudantes de língua alemã, independentemente de sua etnia ou auto- -identificação. [32] [33] [34] [35] [36] [37]

Nome

Nos dias de Copérnico, as pessoas eram muitas vezes chamado após os lugares onde viviam. Assim como a Silésia aldeia que o inspirou, o sobrenome de Copérnico foi escrito de várias maneiras. Hoje, o mundo de fala Inglês sabe o astrônomo principalmente pela latinizada nome, "Nicolau Copérnico".

O sobrenome provavelmente tinha algo a ver com o local da Silésia de mineração de cobre- indústria, [38] embora alguns estudiosos afirmam que ela pode ter sido inspirado pelo dill planta (em polonês, "koperek" ou "Kopernik") que cresce selvagem na Silésia . [39]

Como era de ser o caso de William Shakespeare um século mais tarde, [40] inúmeras variantes ortográficas do nome são documentados para o astrônomo e seus parentes. O nome apareceu pela primeira vez como um nome de lugar na Silésia, no século 13, onde foi escrito diversas vezes em documentos em latim. Copérnico "foi bastante indiferente em relação a ortografia ". [41] Durante sua infância, o nome de seu pai (e, portanto, o astrônomo futuro) foi gravado em Thorn como Niclas Koppernigk por volta de 1480. [42] [43] Em Cracóvia, ele assinou sua nome ". Nicolaus Nicolai de Torunia" [15] Em Bolonha, em 1496, ele registrou no Nobilissimi Matricula Germanorum Collegii resp Annales Clarissimae Nacionis Germanorum do Germanica Natio Bononiae como Dominus Nicolaus Thorn de Kopperlingk -. IX grosseti . [44] [45 ] Em Pádua, Copérnico assinou seu nome "Nicolaus Copernik", depois como "Coppernicus". [41] Ele assinou um auto-retrato, uma cópia do que está agora na Universidade Jagiellonian, "N Copernic". [46] O astrônomo latinizado seu nome para Coppernicus, geralmente com dois "p" s (em 23 dos 31 documentos estudados), [47] , mas mais tarde na vida ele usou uma única "p". Na página de rosto de De revolutionibus, Rheticus publicado o nome como (no genitivo ou possessivo caso), "Nicolai Copernici".

Educação

Tio de Copérnico Watzenrode manteve contactos com as principais figuras intelectuais na Polônia e era amigo do influente Italiano-nascida humanista e Cracóvia cortesão , Filippo Buonaccorsi . [48] Watzenrode a primeira parece ter enviado Copérnico jovem para a Escola de São João em Thorn onde ele próprio tinha sido um mestre. Mais tarde, de acordo com Armitage (alguns estudiosos diferentes), o menino freqüentou a Escola Catedral de Leslau , o rio Vístula de Thorn, que preparou os alunos para a entrada no University de Cracóvia , alma mater Watzenrode na Polônia capital 's. [49]

No semestre de inverno de 1491-92 Copérnico, como "Nicolaus Nicolai de Thuronia", matriculou juntamente com seu irmão Andrew, da Universidade de Cracóvia (agora Universidade Jagiellonian ). Copérnico começou seus estudos no Departamento de Artes (desde a queda de 1491, provavelmente até o verão ou no outono de 1495) no auge da escola Kraków astronômico-matemático , adquirindo as bases para suas realizações matemáticas subseqüentes. De acordo com uma tradição mais tarde, mas credível ( Jan Brozek ), Copérnico foi discípulo de Albert Brudzewski , que até então (de 1491) foi um professor de filosofia aristotélica , mas ensinou astronomia em particular fora da universidade; Copérnico tornou-se familiar com os comentários lidos Brozek para Georg von Peuerbach 's Theoricæ Novae Planetarum e quase certamente assistiram às palestras de Bernardo de Biskupie e Krypa Wojciech de Szamotuly e provavelmente outras palestras astronômicas por Jan de G?ogów , Michael de Wroc?aw , Wojciech de Pniewy e Marcin Bylica de Olkusz . [50]

Cracóvia de Copérnico estudos deu-lhe uma base sólida no conhecimento matemático-astronômico ensinou na universidade (aritmética, geometria, óptica geométrica, cosmografia, astronomia teórica e computacional), um bom conhecimento dos escritos filosóficos e da ciência natural de Aristóteles ( De Coelo , Metafísica ) e Averróis (que mais tarde viria a desempenhar um papel importante na formação de sua teoria), estimulou o seu interesse em aprender, e fê-lo familiarizado com humanística da cultura. Copérnico ampliou o conhecimento que ele tirou as salas de aula da universidade com a leitura independente dos livros que ele adquiriu durante seus anos de Cracóvia ( Euclides , Haly Abenragel , as Tabelas Alfonsine , Johannes Regiomontanus Tabulae "directionum), para este período, provavelmente, também hoje a sua primeiras notas científicas, agora preservados, em parte, a Universidade de Uppsala . [51] Em Cracóvia de Copérnico começou a coletar uma grande biblioteca de astronomia, que mais tarde seria levado como despojo de guerra pelos suecos durante o Dilúvio e está agora na Biblioteca da Universidade de Uppsala .

Copérnico quatro anos em Cracóvia desempenhou um papel importante no desenvolvimento de suas faculdades críticas e iniciou sua análise das contradições lógicas nos dois sistemas mais polular da teoria de astronomia de Aristóteles de esferas homocentric, e Ptolomeu "mecanismo s de excêntricos e epiciclos - a superação e descarte de que constituiu o primeiro passo para a criação de própria doutrina de Copérnico da estrutura do universo. [51]

Sem tomar um grau, provavelmente no outono de 1495, Copérnico deixou Cracóvia para o corte de seu tio Watzenrode, que em 1489 tinha sido elevado ao Príncipe-Bispo de Warmia e logo (após novembro de 1495) procurou colocar seu sobrinho em um Warmia canonicato desocupado por 26 de agosto de 1495 a morte de seu inquilino anterior. Por razões pouco claras, provavelmente devido à oposição de parte do capítulo, que recorreu a instalação Roma-Copérnico foi adiada, inclinando Watzenrode para enviar seus dois sobrinhos para estudar Direito na Itália, aparentemente, com vista a promover suas carreiras eclesiásticas e, assim, também reforço da sua própria influência no capítulo Warmia. [51]

Deixando Warmia em meados de 1496, possivelmente com a comitiva do chanceler do capítulo, Jerzy Pranghe, que estava indo para a Itália no outono (outubro?) Daquele ano Copérnico chegou em Bolonha e alguns meses mais tarde (após 06 de janeiro de 1497) assinou-se no registo da Universidade de Bolonha de "nação alemã" Juristas ", que também incluiu jovens poloneses de Silésia , Prússia e Pomerânia , bem como estudantes de outras nacionalidades. [51]

Foi somente em 20 de outubro de 1497 que Copérnico, por procuração, formalmente sucedeu ao canonicato Warmia, que havia sido concedido a ele dois anos antes. Para isso, por um documento datado de 10 de janeiro, 1503 em Pádua , ele gostaria de acrescentar uma sinecura na Igreja da Colegiada de Santa Cruz, em Breslau (Wroclaw), Silésia , Bohemia . Apesar de ter recebido um papal indulto em 29 de novembro de 1508 para receber mais benefices , através de sua carreira eclesiástica Copérnico não só não adquirir outras prebendas e estações mais altas ( prelacies ) no capítulo, mas em 1538 ele renunciou ao sinecura Breslau. É incerto se ele foi ordenado sacerdote, ele só pode ter tomado ordens menores , que bastado para assumir um sacerdócio capítulo. [51]

Via Galliera 65, Bolonha , local da casa de Domenico Maria de Novara . Placa em pórtico comemora Copérnico.
"Aqui, onde ficava a casa de Domenico Maria de Novara , professor do antigo Studium de Bolonha , Nicolau Copérnico, o matemático e astrônomo polonês que iria revolucionar os conceitos do universo, conduzido brilhantes observações celestes com o seu professor em 1497-1500. Colocado em o centenário de 5 [Copérnico] nascimento pela cidade , a Universidade , a Academia de Ciências do Instituto de Bolonha, a Academia Polonesa de Ciências 1473. [-]. de 1973 "

Durante a sua estada de três anos em Bolonha, entre o outono de 1496 ea primavera de 1501, Copérnico parece ter se dedicado menos intensamente para estudar Direito Canônico (ele recebeu seu doutorado em direito só depois de sete anos, após uma segunda volta para a Itália em 1503) do que para estudar as humanidades - provavelmente freqüentam palestras de Filippo Beroaldo, Antonio Urceo, chamados Codro, Giovanni Garzoni e Alessandro Achillini - e para estudar astronomia. Ele conheceu o famoso astrônomo Domenico Maria de Novara da Ferrara e tornou-se seu discípulo e assistente. Copérnico foi o desenvolvimento de novas idéias inspiradas pela leitura do "Epitome da Almagesto" (Epitome em Almagestum Ptolemei) por George von Peuerbach e Regiomontanus Johannes (Veneza, 1496). Ele verificou as suas observações sobre certas peculiaridades da teoria de Ptolomeu do movimento da Lua, através da realização em 9 de março de 1497 em Bolonha uma observação memorável de Aldebaran , a estrela mais brilhante do Taurus da constelação, cujos resultados reforçou suas dúvidas quanto ao sistema geocêntrico. Copérnico a confirmação humanista procurado por suas crescentes dúvidas através da leitura atenta de autores gregos e latinos ( Pitágoras , Aristarchos de Samos , Cleomedes , Cícero , Plínio, o Velho , Plutarco , Filolau , Heráclides , Ecphantos , Platão ), a coleta, especialmente quando em Pádua , informações históricas sobre as antigas fragmentária astronômicos, cosmológicos e calendário sistemas. [52]

Copérnico passou o ano jubilar de 1500, em Roma, onde chegou com seu irmão Andrew naquela primavera, sem dúvida, para realizar um estágio na Cúria Papal . Aqui, também, no entanto, ele continuou seu trabalho astronômico começou em Bolonha, observando, por exemplo, um eclipse lunar na noite de 5-6 de Novembro de 1500. De acordo com uma conta mais tarde por Rheticus , Copérnico também, provavelmente em particular, ao invés de no Roman Sapienza - como um "Professor Mathematum" (professor de astronomia) entregue, "para numerosos estudantes ... e ... maiores mestres da ciência ", palestras públicas dedicadas provavelmente a uma crítica das soluções matemáticas de astronomia contemporânea. [53]

Em sua viagem de regresso, sem dúvida, parando brevemente em Bolonha, em meados-1501 Copérnico chegou em Warmia. Depois de em 28 de Julho a receber do capítulo, uma prorrogação de dois anos de licença, a fim de estudar medicina (uma vez que "ele pode no futuro ser um conselheiro útil médica ao nosso Reverendo Superior [Bispo Lucas Watzenrode ] e os senhores do capítulo "), no final do verão ou no outono, voltou novamente para a Itália, provavelmente acompanhado por seu irmão Andrew e pela Canon B. Sculteti. Desta vez, ele estudou na Universidade de Pádua , famoso como um lugar de aprendizagem médica, e com exceção de uma breve visita a Ferrara em Maio-Junho 1503 para passar por exames para, e receber o seu doutorado em direito canônico, ele permaneceu em Pádua da queda de 1501 para o verão 1503. [53]

Copérnico estudou medicina, provavelmente sob a direção de liderar Pádua professores-Bartolomeo da Montagnana, Girolamo Fracastoro , Gabriele Zerbi, Alessandro Benedetti e ler tratados médicos que ele adquiriu, neste momento, por Valescus de Taranta, Mesue Janeiro, Senensis Hugo, Jan Ketham, Arnold de Villa Nova, e Michele Savonarola, que formariam o embrião de sua biblioteca mais tarde médico. [53]

Um dos assuntos que Copérnico deve ter estudado foi a astrologia , uma vez que foi considerado uma parte importante de uma educação médica. [54] No entanto, diferentemente da maioria dos outros astrônomos renascentistas proeminentes, ele parece nunca ter praticado ou expressa qualquer interesse em astrologia. [ 55]

Em Bolonha, Copérnico não se limita aos seus estudos oficiais. Foi provavelmente dos anos Pádua, que viu o início de seus interesses helenísticos. Ele familiarizou-se com a língua grega e da cultura com o auxílio de Theodorus Gaza 's gramática (1495) e JB Chrestonius' dicionário (1499), expandindo os estudos da antiguidade, iniciado em Bolonha, aos escritos de Bessarion , Valla J. e outros . Também parece ser uma evidência de que foi durante a sua estadia Pádua que há finalmente cristalizou a idéia de fundar um novo sistema do mundo sobre o movimento da Terra. [53]

Como o tempo aproximado para Copérnico voltar para casa, na Primavera de 1503 viajou para Ferrara, onde, em 31 de Maio de 1503, tendo passado os exames obrigatórios, ele foi concedido o grau de doutor em direito canônico. Sem dúvida, foi logo depois (o mais tardar, no outono de 1503) que ele deixou a Itália para o bem para voltar ao Warmia . [53]

Trabalhar

Copérnico Astrônomo: Conversa com Deus, por Matejko . No fundo: Catedral de Frombork .

Depois de completar todos os seus estudos na Itália, 30-year-old Copérnico voltou a Warmia, onde - além de viagens breves para Cracóvia e às cidades próximas da Prússia (Thorn, Danzig, Elbing, Graudenz, Marienburg , Königsberg ) - ele viveria fora do remanescente de 40 anos de sua vida. [53]

O príncipe-bispado de Warmia apreciado substancial autonomia , com a sua própria dieta (parlamento), o exército, a unidade monetária (o mesmo que nas outras partes da Prússia Real ) e de tesouraria. [56]

Copérnico foi secretário de seu tio e médico 1503-1510 (ou talvez até a morte que tio em 29 de Março 1512) e residiu no castelo do Bispo em Heilsberg (Lidzbark Warmi?ski), onde começou a trabalhar em sua teoria heliocêntrica. Em sua capacidade oficial, ele tomou parte em quase todos os de seu tio deveres políticos, eclesiástico e administrativo-econômica. Desde o início de 1504, Copérnico acompanhado Watzenrode às sessões da dieta Real Prussiana realizada no Marienburg e Elbing e, escrever e Dobrzycki Hajdukiewicz ", participou ... em todos os eventos mais importantes no complexo jogo diplomático que político ambicioso e estadista desempenhou em defesa dos interesses particulares da Prússia e Warmia, entre hostilidade à Ordem [Teutônica] e lealdade para com o [Polonês] Crown ". [53]

"Tradução de Copérnico Teofilato Simocatta "Epístolas s. Capa mostra brasões de armas de (no sentido horário, de cima) da Polónia , Lituânia e Cracóvia .

Em 1504-12 Copérnico fez numerosas viagens como parte da comitiva em seu tio 1504, para Thorn e Danzig, a uma sessão do Conselho Real Prussiana na presença do rei da Polônia Alexander Jagiellon ; às sessões da dieta prussiana em Marienburg (1506 ), Elbing (1507) e Stuhm (1512), e ele pode ter assistido a uma sessão de Posen (1510) ea coroação do rei da Polônia Sigismundo I o Velho , em Cracóvia (1507). Itinerário Watzenrode sugere que na Primavera de 1509 Copernicus pode ter assistido a Cracóvia sejm . [53]

Foi provavelmente a última ocasião, em Cracóvia, que Copérnico enviado para impressão em Jan Haller imprensa da sua tradução, do grego para o latim, de uma coleção, pelo sétimo século bizantino historiador Teofilato Simocatta , de 85 poemas breves chamadas Epístolas , ou cartas, supostamente passados ??entre vários personagens em uma história grega. Eles são de três tipos "moral", que oferece conselhos sobre como as pessoas devem viver; "pastoral", dando pequenos quadros da vida pastor, e "amorosa", compreendendo poemas de amor. Eles são dispostos para seguir um ao outro em uma rotação regular dos sujeitos. Copérnico tinha traduzido os versos gregos em prosa latina, e agora ele publicou sua versão Theophilacti scolastici Simocati Epistolae morales, rurales et interpretatione amatoriae latina, que ele dedicou a seu tio em gratidão por todos os benefícios que recebera dele. Com esta tradução, Copérnico declarou-se do lado dos humanistas na luta pela questão de saber se a literatura grega deve ser revivido. [57] primeira obra de Copérnico poética era grego epigrama , composta provavelmente durante uma visita a Cracóvia, por Johannes Dantiscus " epitalâmio para Barbara Zapolya 's casamento 1512 a Rei Zygmunt I, o Velho . [58]

Algum tempo antes de 1514, Copérnico escreveu um esboço inicial de sua teoria heliocêntrica conhecido apenas a partir de transcrições posteriores, pelo título (talvez dado a ele por um copista), Nicolai Copernici de hypothesibus motuum coelestium uma si-constitutis Commentariolus comumente referido como o Commentariolus . Era uma descrição sucinta teórica do mecanismo heliocêntrica do mundo, sem aparato matemático, e diferem em alguns detalhes importantes da construção geométrica de De revolutionibus, mas foi já com base nos mesmos pressupostos sobre movimentos triplo da Terra. O Commentariolus, que Copérnico conscientemente viu apenas como um esboço primeiro para seu livro planejado, não foi destinado para distribuição impressa. Ele fez apenas algumas cópias manuscritas muito poucas disponíveis para os seus mais próximos conhecidos, incluindo, ao que parece, vários astrônomos Cracóvia com quem colaborou em 1515-30 na observação de eclipses . Tycho Brahe incluiria um fragmento do Commentariolus em seu próprio tratado, Astronomiae Instauratae progymnasmata, publicada em Praga em 1602, baseado em um manuscrito que ele tinha recebido do Bohemian médico e astrônomo Tadeáš Hájek , um amigo de Rheticus . Os Commentariolus parece completa em impressão, pela primeira vez apenas em 1878. [58]

Torre de Copérnico em Frauenburg , onde viveu e trabalhou, recentemente reconstruída
Frauenburg Catedral de montagem e fortificações. Em primeiro plano: estátua de Copérnico

Em 1510 ou 1512 Copérnico mudou-se para Frauenburg, uma cidade ao noroeste na Lagoa Vístula no Mar Báltico costa. Há, em abril de 1512, ele participou da eleição de Fabian de Lossainen como príncipe-bispo de Warmia . Foi somente no início de junho 1512 que o capítulo deu um Copérnico "cúria externo", uma casa fora das muralhas da montagem catedral. Em 1514 ele comprou a torre noroeste dentro dos muros da fortaleza Frauenburg. Ele iria manter estas duas residências para o fim de sua vida, apesar da devastação dos edifícios do capítulo por um ataque contra Frauenburg realizado pela Ordem Teutônica, em janeiro de 1520, durante o qual os instrumentos astronômicos de Copérnico foram provavelmente destruídos. Copernicus realizou observações astronômicas em 1513-16 presumivelmente de sua cúria externa, e em 1522-43, a partir de uma "pequena torre" não identificado (turricula), utilizando instrumentos primitivos modelados em mais de antigas do quadrante , triquetrum , esfera armilar . No Frauenburg Copernicus realizou mais da metade de seus mais de 60 registradas observações astronômicas. [58]

Tendo-se estabelecido de forma permanente em Frauenburg, onde residiria até o fim de sua vida, com interrupções em 1516-19 e 1520-21, Copérnico encontrou-se no centro económico e administrativo do capítulo Warmia, que também foi um dos dois principais centros de Vármia de vida política. Na situação difícil e politicamente complexo de Warmia, ameaçado externamente pela Ordem Teutônica agressões 's (ataques de bandas Teutônicos; a Guerra polaco-germânica de 1519-1521 ; planos de Albrecht ao anexo Warmia), internamente sujeitos a fortes pressões separatistas (o seleção dos -Prince bispos de Warmia ; reforma monetária ), ele, juntamente com parte do capítulo, representado um programa de estreita cooperação com a Coroa polonesa e demonstrado em todas as suas atividades públicas (a defesa de seu país contra os planos da Ordem de conquest; proposals to unify its monetary system with the Polish Crown's; support for Poland's interests in the Warmia dominion's ecclesiastic administration) that he was consciously a citizen of the Polish-Lithuanian Republic . Soon after the death of uncle Bishop Watzenrode, he participated in the signing of the Second Treaty of Piotrków Trybunalski (7 December 1512), governing the appointment of the Bishop of Warmia , declaring, despite opposition from part of the chapter, for loyal cooperation with the Polish Crown . [ 58 ]

That same year (before 8 November 1512) Copernicus assumed responsibility, as magister pistoriae , for administering the chapter's economic enterprises (he would hold this office again in 1530), having already since 1511 fulfilled the duties of chancellor and visitor of the chapter's estates. [ 58 ]

His administrative and economic dutes did not distract Copernicus, in 1512–15, from intensive observational activity. The results of his observations of Mars and Saturn in this period, and especially a series of four observations of the Sun made in 1515, led to discovery of the variability of Earth 's eccentricity and of the movement of the solar apogee in relation to the fixed stars, which in 1515–19 prompted his first revisions of certain assumptions of his system. Some of the observations that he made in this period may have had a connection with a proposed reform of the Julian calendar made in the first half of 1513 at the request of the Bishop of Fossombrone , Paul of Middelburg . Their contacts in this matter in the period of the Fifth Lateran Council were later memorialized in a complimentary mention in Copernicus' dedicatory epistle in De revolutionibus orbium coelestium and in a treatise by Paul of Middelburg, Secundum compendium correctionis Calendarii (1516), which mentions Copernicus among the learned men who had sent the Council proposals for the calendar's emendation. [ 59 ]

During 1516–21, Copernicus resided at Allenstein Castle as economic administrator of Warmia, including Allenstein (Olsztyn) and Mehlsack (Pieni??no). While there, he wrote a manuscript, Locationes mansorum desertorum ( Locations of Deserted Fiefs ), with a view to populating those fiefs with industrious farmers and so bolstering the economy of Warmia. When Allenstein was besieged by the Teutonic Knights during the Polish–Teutonic War (1519–21) , Copernicus directed the defense of Allenstein and Warmia by Royal Polish forces. He also represented the Polish side in the ensuing peace negotiations. [ 60 ]

Copernicus worked for years with the Royal Prussian diet , and with Duke Albert of Prussia (against whom Copernicus had defended Warmia in the Polish-Teutonic War), and advised King Sigismund, on monetary reform . He participated in discussions in the East Prussian diet about coinage reform in the Prussian countries; a question that concerned the diet was who had the right to mint coin . Political developments in Prussia culminated in the 1525 establishment of the Duchy of Prussia as a Protestant state in vassalage to Poland.

In 1526 Copernicus wrote a study on the value of money, Monetae cudendae ratio . In it he formulated an early iteration of the theory, now called Gresham's Law , that "bad" ( debased ) coinage drives "good" (un-debased) coinage out of circulation—70 years before Thomas Gresham . He also formulated a version of quantity theory of money . Copernicus' recommendations on monetary reform were widely read by leaders of both Prussia and Poland in their attempts to stabilize currency. [ 61 ] [ 62 ]

In 1533, Johann Widmanstetter, secretary to Pope Clement VII , explained Copernicus' heliocentric system to the Pope and two cardinals. The Pope was so pleased that he gave Widmanstetter a valuable gift. [ 63 ] In 1535 Bernard Wapowski wrote a letter to a gentleman in Vienna , urging him to publish an enclosed almanac , which he claimed had been written by Copernicus. This is the first and only mention of a Copernicus almanac in the historical records. The "almanac" was likely Copernicus' tables of planetary positions. Wapowski's letter mentions Copernicus' theory about the motions of the earth. Nothing came of Wapowski's request, because he died a couple of weeks later. [ 63 ]

Following the death of Prince-Bishop of Warmia Mauritius Ferber (1 July 1537), Copernicus participated in the election of his successor, Johannes Dantiscus (20 September 1537). Copernicus was one of four candidates for the post, written in at the initiative of Tiedemann Giese ; but his candidacy was actually pro forma , since Dantiscus had earlier been named coadjutor bishop to Ferber. [ 64 ] At first Copernicus maintained friendly relations with the new Prince-Bishop, assisting him medically in spring 1538 and accompanying him that summer on an inspection tour of Chapter holdings. But that autumn, their friendship was strained by suspicions over Copernicus' housekeeper, Anna Schilling, whom Dantiscus removed from Frauenburg in 1539. [ 64 ]

Copernicus with medicinal plant

In his younger days, Copernicus the physician had treated his uncle, brother and other chapter members. In later years he was called upon to attend the elderly bishops who in turn occupied the see of Warmia—Mauritius Ferber and Johannes Dantiscus—and, in 1539, his old friend Tiedemann Giese , Bishop of Kulm (Che?mno). In treating such important patients, he sometimes sought consultations from other physicians, including the physician to Duke Albert and, by letter, the Polish Royal Physician. [ 65 ]

" Nicolaus Copernicus Tornaeus Borussus Mathemat. ", 1597

In the spring of 1541, Duke Albert summoned Copernicus to Königsberg to attend the Duke's counselor, George von Kunheim , who had fallen seriously ill, and for whom the Prussian doctors seemed unable to do anything. Copernicus went willingly; he had met von Kunheim during negotiations over reform of the coinage. And Copernicus had come to feel that Albert himself was not such a bad person; the two had many intellectual interests in common. The Chapter readily gave Copernicus permission to go, as it wished to remain on good terms with the Duke, despite his Lutheran faith. In about a month the patient recovered, and Copernicus returned to Frauenburg. For a time, he continued to receive reports on von Kunheim's condition, and to send him medical advice by letter. [ 66 ]

Throughout this period of his life, Copernicus continued making astronomical observations and calculations, but only as his other responsibilities permitted and never in a professional capacity.

Some of Copernicus' close friends turned Protestant, but Copernicus never showed a tendency in that direction. The first attacks on him came from Protestants. Wilhelm Gnapheus , a Dutch refugee settled in Elbl?g , wrote a comedy in Latin , Morosophus (The Foolish Sage), and staged it at the Latin school that he had established there. In the play, Copernicus was caricatured as a haughty, cold, aloof man who dabbled in astrology , considered himself inspired by God, and was rumored to have written a large work that was moldering in a chest. [ 48 ]

Elsewhere Protestants were the first to react to news of Copernicus' theory. Melanchthon wrote:

Some people believe that it is excellent and correct to work out a thing as absurd as did that Sarmatian [ie, Polish] astronomer who moves the earth and stops the sun. Indeed, wise rulers should have curbed such light-mindedness. [ 48 ]

Nevertheless, in 1551, eight years after Copernicus' death, astronomer Erasmus Reinhold published, under the sponsorship of Copernicus' former military adversary, the Protestant Duke Albert, the Prussian Tables , a set of astronomical tables based on Copernicus' work. Astronomers and astrologers quickly adopted it in place of its predecessors. [ 67 ]

Heliocentrism

Mid-16th-century portrait [ 68 ]

Some time before 1514 Copernicus made available to friends his " Commentariolus " ("Little Commentary"), a forty-page manuscript describing his ideas about the heliocentric hypothesis. [ 69 ] It contained seven basic assumptions (detailed below). [ 70 ] Thereafter he continued gathering data for a more detailed work.

About 1532 Copernicus had basically completed his work on the manuscript of De revolutionibus orbium coelestium ; but despite urging by his closest friends, he resisted openly publishing his views, not wishing—as he confessed—to risk the scorn "to which he would expose himself on account of the novelty and incomprehensibility of his theses." [ 64 ]

In 1533, Johann Albrecht Widmannstetter delivered a series of lectures in Rome outlining Copernicus' theory. Pope Clement VII and several Catholic cardinals heard the lectures and were interested in the theory. On 1 November 1536, Cardinal Nikolaus von Schönberg , Archbishop of Capua , wrote to Copernicus from Rome:

Some years ago word reached me concerning your proficiency, of which everybody constantly spoke. At that time I began to have a very high regard for you... For I had learned that you had not merely mastered the discoveries of the ancient astronomers uncommonly well but had also formulated a new cosmology. In it you maintain that the earth moves; that the sun occupies the lowest, and thus the central, place in the universe... Therefore with the utmost earnestness I entreat you, most learned sir, unless I inconvenience you, to communicate this discovery of yours to scholars, and at the earliest possible moment to send me your writings on the sphere of the universe together with the tables and whatever else you have that is relevant to this subject ... [ 71 ]

By then Copernicus' work was nearing its definitive form, and rumors about his theory had reached educated people all over Europe. Despite urgings from many quarters, Copernicus delayed publication of his book, perhaps from fear of criticism—a fear delicately expressed in the subsequent dedication of his masterpiece to Pope Paul III . Scholars disagree on whether Copernicus' concern was limited to possible astronomical and philosophical objections, or whether he was also concerned about religious objections. [ 72 ]

The book

De revolutionibus , 1543. Click on image to read book.

Copernicus was still working on De revolutionibus orbium coelestium (even if not certain that he wanted to publish it) when in 1539 Georg Joachim Rheticus , a Wittenberg mathematician , arrived in Frauenburg. Philipp Melanchthon , a close theological ally of Martin Luther , had arranged for Rheticus to visit several astronomers and study with them.

Rheticus became Copernicus' pupil, staying with him for two years and writing a book, Narratio prima (First Account), outlining the essence of Copernicus' theory. In 1542 Rheticus published a treatise on trigonometry by Copernicus (later included in the second book of De revolutionibus ).

Under strong pressure from Rheticus, and having seen the favorable first general reception of his work, Copernicus finally agreed to give De revolutionibus to his close friend, Tiedemann Giese , bishop of Kulm , to be delivered to Rheticus for printing by the German printer Johannes Petreius at Nuremberg ( Nürnberg ), Germany. While Rheticus initially supervised the printing, he had to leave Nuremberg before it was completed, and he handed over the task of supervising the rest of the printing to a Lutheran theologian, Andreas Osiander . [ 73 ]

Osiander added an unauthorised and unsigned preface, defending the work against those who might be offended by the novel hypotheses. He explained that astronomers may find different causes for observed motions, and choose whatever is easier to grasp. As long as a hypothesis allows reliable computation, it does not have to match what a philosopher might seek as the truth.

Morte

1735 epitaph , Frauenburg Cathedral . A 1580 epitaph had been destroyed.
Casket with Copernicus' remains, St. James' Cathedral Basilica, Allenstein , March 2010
Copernicus' 2010 grave, Frauenburg Cathedral

Copernicus died in Frauenburg on 24 May 1543. Legend has it that the first printed copy of De revolutionibus was placed in his hands on the very day that he died, allowing him to take farewell of his life's work. He is reputed to have awoken from a stroke-induced coma, looked at his book, and then died peacefully.

Copernicus was reportedly buried in Frauenburg Cathedral , where archaeologists for over two centuries searched in vain for his remains. Efforts to locate the remains in 1802, 1909, 1939 and 2004 had come to nought. In August 2005, however, a team led by Jerzy G?ssowski, head of an archaeology and anthropology institute in Pu?tusk , after scanning beneath the cathedral floor, discovered what they believed to be Copernicus' remains. [ 74 ]

The find came after a year of searching, and the discovery was announced only after further research, on 3 November 2008. G?ssowski said he was "almost 100 percent sure it is Copernicus." [ citation needed ] Forensic expert Capt. Dariusz Zajdel of the Polish Police Central Forensic Laboratory used the skull to reconstruct a face that closely resembled the features—including a broken nose and a scar above the left eye—on a Copernicus self-portrait. [ citation needed ] The expert also determined that the skull belonged to a man who had died around age 70—Copernicus' age at the time of his death. [ 74 ]

The grave was in poor condition, and not all the remains of the skeleton were found; missing, among other things, was the lower jaw. [ 75 ] The DNA from the bones found in the grave matched hair samples taken from a book owned by Copernicus which was kept at the library of the University of Uppsala in Sweden. [ 76 ] [ 77 ]

On 22 May 2010 Copernicus was given a second funeral in a Mass led by Józef Kowalczyk , the former papal nuncio to Poland and newly named Primate of Poland . Copernicus' remains were reburied in the same spot in Frauenburg Cathedral where part of his skull and other bones had been found. A black granite tombstone now identifies him as the founder of the heliocentric theory and also a church canon . The tombstone bears a representation of Copernicus' model of the solar system—a golden sun encircled by six of the planets. [ 78 ]

Copernican system

Predecessors

Philolaus (c. 480–385 BCE) described an astronomical system in which a Central Fire (different from the Sun) occupied the centre of the universe, and a counter-Earth, the Earth, Moon, the Sun itself, planets, and stars all revolved around it, in that order outward from the centre. [ 79 ] Heraclides Ponticus (387–312 BCE) proposed that the Earth rotates on its axis. [ 80 ] Aristarchus of Samos (310 BCE – c. 230 BCE) identified the "central fire" with the Sun, around which he had the Earth orbiting. [ 81 ] Some technical details of Copernicus's system [ 82 ] closely resembled those developed earlier by the Islamic astronomers Na??r al-D?n al-??s? and Ibn al-Sh??ir , both of whom retained a geocentric model.

The prevailing theory in Europe during Copernicus' lifetime was the one that Ptolemy published in his Almagest circa 150 CE; the Earth was the stationary center of the universe. Stars were embedded in a large outer sphere which rotated rapidly, approximately daily, while each of the planets, the Sun, and the Moon were embedded in their own, smaller spheres. Ptolemy's system employed devices, including epicycles, deferents and equants , to account for observations that the paths of these bodies differed from simple, circular orbits centered on the Earth.

Copernicus

Copernicus' vision of the universe in De revolutionibus orbium coelestium

Copernicus' major theory was published in De revolutionibus orbium coelestium ( On the Revolutions of the Celestial Spheres ), in the year of his death, 1543, though he had formulated the theory several decades earlier.

Copernicus' "Commentariolus" summarized his heliocentric theory. It listed the "assumptions" upon which the theory was based as follows: [ 83 ]

1. There is no one center of all the celestial circles or spheres.
2. The center of the earth is not the center of the universe, but only of gravity and of the lunar sphere.
3. All the spheres revolve about the sun as their mid-point, and therefore the sun is the center of the universe.
4. The ratio of the earth's distance from the sun to the height of the firmament (outermost celestial sphere containing the stars) is so much smaller than the ratio of the earth's radius to its distance from the sun that the distance from the earth to the sun is imperceptible in comparison with the height of the firmament.
5. Whatever motion appears in the firmament arises not from any motion of the firmament, but from the earth's motion. The earth together with its circumjacent elements performs a complete rotation on its fixed poles in a daily motion, while the firmament and highest heaven abide unchanged.
6. What appear to us as motions of the sun arise not from its motion but from the motion of the earth and our sphere, with which we revolve about the sun like any other planet. The earth has, then, more than one motion.
7. The apparent retrograde and direct motion of the planets arises not from their motion but from the earth's. The motion of the earth alone, therefore, suffices to explain so many apparent inequalities in the heavens.

De revolutionibus itself was divided into six parts, called "books":

  1. General vision of the heliocentric theory, and a summarized exposition of his idea of the World
  2. Mainly theoretical, presents the principles of spherical astronomy and a list of stars (as a basis for the arguments developed in the subsequent books)
  3. Mainly dedicated to the apparent motions of the Sun and to related phenomena
  4. Description of the Moon and its orbital motions
  5. Concrete exposition of the new system
  6. Concrete exposition of the new system

Successors

Georg Joachim Rheticus could have been Copernicus' successor, but did not rise to the occasion. [ 63 ] Erasmus Reinhold could have been his successor, but died prematurely. [ 63 ] The first of the great successors was Tycho Brahe [ 63 ] (though he did not think the earth orbitted the sun), followed by Johannes Kepler , [ 63 ] who had worked as Tycho's assistant in Prague.

Despite the near universal acceptance today of the basic heliocentric idea (though not the epicycles or the circular orbits), Copernicus' theory was originally slow to catch on. Scholars hold that sixty years after the publication of The Revolutions there were only around 15 astronomers espousing Copernicanism in all of Europe, "Thomas Digges and Thomas Hariot in England; Giordano Bruno and Galileo Galilei in Italy; Diego de Zuniga in Spain; Simon Stevin in the Low Countries; and in Germany, the largest group – Georg Joachim Rheticus, Michael Maestlin, Christoph Rothmann (who may have later recanted), [ 84 ] and Johannes Kepler." [ 84 ] Additional possibilities are Englishman William Gilbert, along with Achilles Gasser, Georg Vogelin, Valentin Otto, and Tiedemann Giese. [ 84 ]

Arthur Koestler , in his popular book The Sleepwalkers , asserted that Copernicus' book had not been widely read on its first publication. [ 85 ] This claim was trenchantly criticised by Edward Rosen , [ 86 ] and has been decisively disproved by Owen Gingerich , who examined every surviving copy of the first two editions and found copious marginal notes by their owners throughout many of them. Gingerich published his conclusions in 2004 in The Book Nobody Read . [ 87 ]

The intellectual climate of the time "remained dominated by Aristotelian philosophy and the corresponding Ptolemaic astronomy. At that time there was no reason to accept the Copernican theory, except for its mathematical simplicity [by avoiding using the equant in determining planetary positions]." [ 88 ] Tycho Brahe's system ("that the earth is stationary, the sun revolves about the earth, and the other planets revolve about the sun") [ 88 ] also directly competed with Copernicus'. It was only a half century later with the work of Kepler and Galileo that any substantial evidence defending Copernicanism appeared, starting "from the time when Galileo formulated the principle of inertia...[which] helped to explain why everything would not fall off the earth if it were in motion." [ 88 ] It was not until "after Isaac Newton formulated the universal law of gravitation and the laws of mechanics [in his 1687 Principia ], which unified terrestrial and celestial mechanics, was the heliocentric view generally accepted." [ 88 ]

Controversy

Copernicus, astronomer

Only mild controversy (and no fierce sermons) was the immediate result of the publication of Copernicus' book. At the Council of Trent neither Copernicus' theory nor calendar reform (which would later use tables deduced from Copernicus' calculations) were discussed.

The first notable to move against Copernicanism was the Magister of the Holy Palace (ie, the Catholic Church's chief censor ), Dominican Bartolomeo Spina , who "expressed a desire to stamp out the Copernican doctrine." [ 89 ] [ 90 ] But with Spina's death in 1546, his cause fell to his friend, the well known theologian-astronomer, the Dominican Giovanni Maria Tolosani of the Convent of St. Mark in Florence. Tolosani had written a treatise on reforming the calendar (in which astronomy would play a large role), and had attended the Fifth Lateran Council to discuss the matter. He had obtained a copy of De Revolutionibus in 1544. His denouncement of Copernicanism appeared in an appendix to his work entitled On the Truth of Sacred Scripture . [ 91 ] [ 92 ]

Emulating the rationalistic style of Thomas Aquinas , Tolosani sought to refute Copernicanism on philosophical arguments. While still invoking Christian Scripture and Tradition, Tolosani strove to show Copernicanism was absurd because it was unproven and unfounded on three main points. First Copernicus had assumed the motion of the Earth but offered no physical theory whereby one would deduce this motion. (No one realized that the investigation into Copernicanism would result in a rethinking of the entire field of physics .) Second Tolosani charged that Copernicus' thought processes was backwards. He held that Copernicus had come up with his idea and then sought phenomena that would support it, rather than observing phenomena and deducing from that the idea of what caused it. In this Tolosani was linking Copernicus' mathematical equations with the practices of the Pythagoreans (whom Aristotle had made arguments against, which were later picked up by Thomas Aquinas). It was argued that mathematical numbers were a mere product of the intellect without any physical reality, and as such "numbers could not provide physical causes in the investigation of nature." [ 89 ] (This was basically a denial of the possibility of mathematical physics .)

Some astronomical hypotheses at the time (such as epicycles and eccentrics) were seen as mere mathematical devices to adjust calculations of where the heavenly bodies would appear, rather than an explanation of the cause of those motions. (As Copernicus still maintained the idea of perfectly spherical orbits he relied on epicycles). This "saving the phenomena" was seen as proof that Astronomy and Math could not be taken as a serious means to determine physical causes. Holding this view, Tolosani invoked it in his final critique of Copernicus, saying his biggest error was that he started with "inferior" fields of science to make pronouncements about "superior" fields. Copernicus had used Mathematics and Astronomy to postulate about Physics and Cosmology, rather than beginning with the accepted principles of Physics and Cosmology to determine things about Astronomy and Math. In this way Copernicus seemed to be undermining the whole system of the philosophy of science at the time. Tolosani held that Copernicus had just fallen into philosophical error because he hadn't been versed in physics and logic - anyone without such knowledge would make a poor astronomer and be unable to distinguish truth from falsehood. Because it had not meet the criteria for scientific truth set out by Thomas Aquinas, Tolosani held that Copernicanism could only be viewed as a wild unproven theory.

Tolosani recognized that the Ad Lectorem preface to Copernicus' book wasn't actually by him. Its thesis that astronomy as a whole would never be able to make truth claims was rejected by Tolosani, (though he still held that Copernicus' attempt to describe physical reality had been faulty), he found it ridiculous that Ad Lectorem had been included in the book (unaware that Copernicus hadn't authorized its inclusion). Tolosani wrote "By means of these words [of the Ad Lectorem ], the foolishness of this book's author is rebuked. For by a foolish effort he [Copernicus] tried to revive the weak Pythagorean opinion [that the element of fire was at the center of the Universe], long ago deservedly destroyed, since it is expressly contrary to human reason and also opposes holy writ. From this situation, there could easily arise disagreements between Catholic expositors of holy scripture and those who might wish to adhere obstinately to this false opinion. We have written this little work for the purpose of avoiding this scandal." [ 92 ] Tolosani declared "Nicolaus Copernicus neither read nor understood the arguments of Aristotle the philosopher and Ptolemy the astronomer." [ 92 ] He wrote that Copernicus "is very deficient in the sciences of physics and logic. Moreover, it appears that he is unskilled with regard to [the interpretation of] holy scripture, since he contradicts several of its principles, not without danger of infidelity to himself and the readers of his book. ...his arguments have no force and can very easily be taken apart. For it is stupid to contradict an opinion accepted by everyone over a very long time for the strongest reasons, unless the impugner uses more powerful and insoluble demonstrations and completely dissolves the opposed reasons. But he does not do this in the least." [ 92 ] He declared that he had written against Copernicus "for the purpose of preserving the truth to the common advantage of the Holy Church." [ 92 ] Despite the efforts Tolosani put into his work it remained unpublished and it "was likely shelved in the library of the Dominican order at San Marco in Florence, awaiting its use by some new prosecutor" (it is believed that Dominican Tommaso Caccini read it before delivering a sermon against Galileo in December 1613). [ 92 ]

It has been much debated why it was not until six decades after the publication of De revolutionibus that the Catholic Church took any official action against it, even the efforts of Tolosani had gone unheeded. Proposed reasons have included the personality of Galileo Galilei and the availability of evidence such as telescope observations. [ citation needed ]

How entwined the pre-Copernican theory was in theological circles can be seen in a sample of the works of John Calvin . In his Commentary on Genesis he said that "We indeed are not ignorant that the circuit of the heavens is finite, and that the earth, like a little glove, is placed in the centre." [ 93 ] Commenting on Job 26:7 Calvin wrote "It is true that Job specifically says 'the north,' and yet he is speaking about the whole heaven. And that is because the sky turns around upon the pole that is there. For, just as in the wheels of a chariot there is an axle that runs through the middle of them, and the wheels turn around the axle by reason of the holes that are in the middle of them, even so is it in the skies. This is manifestly seen; that is to say, those who are well acquainted with the course of the firmament see that the sky so turns." [ 93 ] Calvin's commentaries on the Psalms also show a reliance on the pre-Copernican theory; for Psalms 93:1 "The heavens revolve daily, and, immense as is their fabric and inconceivable the rapidity of their revolutions, we experience no concussion – no disturbance in the harmony of their motion. The sun, though varying its course every diurnal revolution, returns annually to the same point. The planets, in all their wanderings, maintain their respective positions. How could the earth hang suspended in the air were it not upheld by God's hand? By what means could it maintain itself unmoved, while the heavens above are in constant rapid motion, did not its Divine Maker fix and establish it." [ 93 ] Commenting on Psalms 19:4 Calvin says "the firmament, by its own revolution draws with it all the fixed stars". [ 93 ] There is no evidence that Calvin was aware of Copernicus, and claims that after quoting Psalm 93:1 he went on to say "Who will venture to place the authority of Copernicus above the Holy Spirit", have been discredited and shown to originate with Frederic William Farrar's Bampton Lecture in 1885. [ 93 ] Unlike Calvin many theologians did become aware of Copernicus' theory which became increasingly controversial.

The sharpest point of conflict between Copernicus' theory and the Bible concerned the story of the Battle of Gibeon in the Book of Joshua where the Hebrew forces were winning but whose opponents were likely to escape once night fell. This is averted by Joshua's prayers causing the sun and the moon to stand still. Martin Luther would question Copernicus' theory on these grounds. According to Anthony Lauterbach, while eating with Martin Luther the topic of Copernicus arouse during dinner on 4 June 1539 (as professor George Joachim Rheticus of the local University had been granted leave to visit him). Luther is said to have remarked "So it goes now. Whoever wants to be clever must agree with nothing others esteem. He must do something of his own. This is what that fellow does who wishes to turn the whole of astronomy upside down. Even in these thing that are thrown into disorder I believe the Holy Scriptures, for Joshua commanded the sun to stand still and not the earth." [ 88 ] These remarks were made four years before the publication of On the Revolutions of the Heavenly Spheres and a year before Rheticus' Narratio Prima . In John Aurifaber's account of the conversation Luther calls Copernicus "that fool" rather than "that fellow", this version is viewed by historians as less reliably sourced. [ 88 ]

Luther's collaborator Philipp Melanchthon also took issue with Copernicanism. After receiving the first pages of Narratio Prima from Rheticus himself, Melanchthon wrote to Mithobius (physician and mathematician Burkard Mithob of Feldkirch) on October 16, 1541 condemning the theory and calling for it to be repressed by governmental force, writing "certain people believe it is a marvelous achievement to extol so crazy a thing, like that Polish astronomer who makes the earth move and the sun stand still. Really, wise governments ought to repress impudence of mind." [ 94 ] It had appeared to Rheticus that Melanchton would understand the theory and would be open to it. This was because Melanchton had taught Ptolemaic astronomy and had even recommended his friend Rheticus to an appointment to the Deanship of the Faculty of Arts & Sciences at the University of Wittenberg after he had returned from studying with Copernicus.

Rheticus' hopes were dashed when six years after the publication of De Revolutionibus Melanchthon published his Initia Doctrinae Physicae presenting three grounds to reject Copernicanism, these were "the evidence of the senses, the thousand-year consensus of men of science, and the authority of the Bible". [ 95 ] Blasting the new theory Melanchthon wrote "Out of love for novelty or in order to make a show of their cleverness, some people have argued that the earth moves. They maintain that neither the eighth sphere nor the sun moves, whereas they attribute motion to the other celestial spheres, and also place the earth among the heavenly bodies. Nor were these jokes invented recently. There is still extant Archimedes' book on The sand-reckoner ; in which he reports that Aristarchus of Samos propounded the paradox that the sun stands still and the earth revolves around the sun. Even though subtle experts institute many investigations for the sake of exercising their ingenuity, nevertheless public proclamation of absurd opinions is indecent and sets a harmful example." [ 94 ] Melanchthon went on to cite Bible passages and then declare "Encouraged by this divine evidence, let us cherish the truth and let us not permit ourselves to be alienated from it by the tricks of those who deem it an intellectual honor to introduce confusion into the arts." [ 94 ] In the first edition of Initia Doctrinae Physicae , Melanchthon even questioned Copernicus' character claiming his motivation was "either from love of novelty or from desire to appear clever", these more personal attacks were largely removed by the second edition in 1550. [ 95 ]

Another Protestant theologican who took issue with Copernicus was John Owen who declared that "the late hypothesis, fixing the sun as in the centre of the world' was 'built on fallible phenomena, and advanced by many arbitrary presumptions against evident testimonies of Scripture.' [ 96 ]

In Roman Catholic circles, German Jesuit Nicolaus Serarius was one of the first to write against Copernicus' theory as heretical, citing the Joshua passage, in a work published in 1609–1610, and again in a book in 1612.

In his 12 April 1615 letter to a Catholic defender of Copernicus, Paolo Antonio Foscarini , Catholic Cardinal Robert Bellarmine condemned Copernican theory, writing "...not only the Holy Fathers , but also the modern commentaries on Genesis, the Psalms, Ecclesiastes, and Joshua, you will find all agreeing in the literal interpretation that the sun is in heaven and turns around the earth with great speed, and that the earth is very far from heaven and sits motionless at the center of the world...Nor can one answer that this is not a matter of faith, since if it is not a matter of faith 'as regards the topic,' it is a matter of faith 'as regards the speaker': and so it would be heretical to say that Abraham did not have two children and Jacob twelve, as well as to say that Christ was not born of a virgin, because both are said by the Holy Spirit through the mouth of prophets and apostles." [ 97 ]

Perhaps the strongest opponent to Copernican theory was Francesco Ingoli a Catholic priest. Ingoli wrote a January 1616 essay condemning Copernicanism as "philosophically untenable and theologically heretical." [ 97 ] Though "it is not certain, it is probable that he was commissioned by the Inquisition to write an expert opinion on the controversy", [ 97 ] (after the Congregation of the Index's decree against Copernicanism on 5 March 1616 Ingoli was officially appointed its consultant). Two of Ingoli's theological issues with Copernicus' theory were "common Catholic beliefs not directly traceable to Scripture: the doctrine that hell is located at the center of Earth and is most distant from heaven; and the explicit assertion that Earth is motionless in a hymn sung on Tuesdays as part of the Liturgy of the Hours of the Divine Office prayers regularly recited by priests." [ 97 ] Ingoli also cited Genesis 1:14 where YHWH places "lights in the firmament of the heavens to divide the day from the night." [ 97 ] Like previous commentators Ingoli pointed to the passages about the Battle of Gibeon and dismissed arguments that they should be taken metaphorically, saying "Replies which assert that Scripture speaks according to our mode of understanding are not satisfactory: both because in explaining the Sacred Writings the rule is always to preserve the literal sense, when it is possible, as it is in this case; and also because all the [Church] Fathers unanimously take this passage to mean that the sun which was truly moving stopped at Joshua's request. An interpretation which is contrary to the unanimous consent of the Fathers is condemned by the Council of Trent, Session IV, in the decree on the edition and use of the Sacred Books. Furthermore, although the Council speaks about matters of faith and morals, nevertheless it cannot be denied that the Holy Fathers would be displeased with an interpretation of Sacred Scriptures which is contrary to their common agreement." [ 97 ]

In March 1616, in connection with the Galileo affair , the Roman Catholic Church's Congregation of the Index issued a decree suspending De revolutionibus until it could be "corrected," on the grounds that the supposedly Pythagorean doctrine [ 98 ] that the Earth moves and the Sun does not was "false and altogether opposed to Holy Scripture ." [ 99 ] The same decree also prohibited any work that defended the mobility of the Earth or the immobility of the Sun, or that attempted to reconcile these assertions with Scripture .

On the orders of Pope Paul V , Cardinal Robert Bellarmine gave Galileo prior notice that the decree was about to be issued, and warned him that he could not "hold or defend" the Copernican doctrine. [ 100 ] The corrections to De revolutionibus , which omitted or altered nine sentences, were issued four years later, in 1620. [ 101 ]

In 1633 Galileo Galilei was convicted of grave suspicion of heresy for "following the position of Copernicus, which is contrary to the true sense and authority of Holy Scripture ," [ 102 ] and was placed under house arrest for the rest of his life.

At the instance of Roger Boscovich , the Catholic Church's 1758 Index of Prohibited Books omitted the general prohibition of works defending heliocentrism, [ 103 ] but retained the specific prohibitions of the original uncensored versions of De revolutionibus and Galileo's Dialogue Concerning the Two Chief World Systems . Those prohibitions were finally dropped from the 1835 Index . [ 104 ]

Nationality

Bust by Schadow , 1807, Walhalla temple

There has been discussion of Copernicus' nationality and of whether, in fact, it is meaningful to ascribe to him a nationality in the modern sense.

Historian Michael Burleigh describes the nationality debate as a "totally insignificant battle" between German and Polish scholars during the interwar period . [ 105 ]

Polish astronomer Konrad Rudnicki calls the discussion a "fierce scholarly quarrel in... times of nationalism" and describes Copernicus as an inhabitant of a German-speaking territory that belonged to Poland, himself being of mixed Polish-German extraction. [ 106 ] Rudnicki adds that Martin Luther , an opponent of Copernicus' theories, regarded him as Polish and referred to him as a "Sarmatic fool". (At the time, "Sarmatian" was a term for a nobleman of the Crown of the Kingdom of Poland .) [ 106 ]

According to Czes?aw Mi?osz , the debate is an "absurd" projection of a modern understanding of nationality onto Renaissance people, who identified with their home territories rather than with a nation. [ 107 ]

Similarly historian Norman Davies writes that Copernicus, as was common in his era, was "largely indifferent" to nationality, being a local patriot who considered himself " Prussian ". [ 108 ]

Mi?osz and Davies both write that Copernicus had a German-language cultural background, while his working language was Latin in accordance with the usage of the time. [ 107 ] [ 108 ] Additionally, according to Davies, "there is ample evidence that he knew the Polish language." [ 108 ] Davies concludes: "Taking everything into consideration, there is good reason to regard him both as a German and as a Pole: and yet, in the sense that modern nationalists understand it, he was neither." [ 108 ]

The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy describes Copernicus as a "child of a German family [who] was a subject of the Polish crown", [ 5 ] while others note that his father was a Germanized Pole. [ 109 ] Encyclopædia Britannica , [ 110 ] Encyclopedia Americana , [ 111 ] The Columbia Encyclopedia [ 112 ] and The Oxford World Encyclopedia [ 113 ] identify Copernicus as a "Polish astronomer".

Copernicium

On 14 July 2009, the discoverers, from the Gesellschaft für Schwerionenforschung in Darmstadt , Germany, of chemical element 112 (temporarily named ununbium ) proposed to the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry that its permanent name be " copernicium " (symbol Cn). "After we had named elements after our city and our state, we wanted to make a statement with a name that was known to everyone," said Hofmann. "We didn't want to select someone who was a German. We were looking world-wide." [ 114 ] On the 537th anniversary of his birthday the official naming was released to the public. [ 115 ]

Veneration

Copernicus is honored, together with Johannes Kepler , in the liturgical calendar of the Episcopal Church (USA) , with a feast day on 23 May. [ 116 ]

See also

Notes

  1. ^ Nicolaus Copernicus Gesamtausgabe : Urkunden, Akten und Nachrichten: Texte und Übersetzungen , ISBN 3-05-003009-7 , pp. 23ff. ( online ); Marian Biskup : Regesta Copernicana (calendar of Copernicus' Papers) , Ossolineum, 1973, p. 32 ( online ). This spelling of the surname is rendered in many publications ( Auflistung ) [1]
  2. ^ Linton (2004, p. 39 ). Copernicus was not, however, the first to propose some form of heliocentric system. A Greek mathematician and astronomer, Aristarchus of Samos , had already done so as early as the third century BCE. Nevertheless, there is little evidence that he ever developed his ideas beyond a very basic outline (Dreyer , 1953, pp. 135–48) .
  3. ^ A self-portrait helped confirm the identity of his cranium when it was discovered at Frombork Cathedral in 2008. Kraków 's Jagiellonian University has a 17th-century copy of Copernicus' 16th-century self-portrait. [2] "Copernicus," Encyclopædia Britannica , 15th ed., 2005, vol. 16, p. 760.
  4. ^ I?owiecki, Maciej (1981). Dzieje nauki polskiej . Warszawa: Wydawnictwo Interpress. p. 40. ISBN 83-223-1876-6 .  
  5. ^ a b "Nicolaus Copernicus" . Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy . http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/copernicus/#1 . Retrieved 2007-04-22 .  
  6. ^ a b Jerzy Dobrzycki and Leszek Hajdukiewicz, "Kopernik, Miko?aj", Polski s?ownik biograficzny , vol. XIV, 1969, p. 4.
  7. ^ [Great Books of the Western World, Book 16]
  8. ^ "The name of the village, not unlike that of the astronomer's family, has been variously spelled. A large German atlas of Silesia, published by Wieland in Nuremberg in 1731, spells it Kopernik." Stephen Mizwa , Nicolaus Copernicus, 1543–1943 , Kessinger Publishing, 1943, p. 36. ( [3] )
  9. ^ Jerzy Dobrzycki and Leszek Hajdukiewicz, "Kopernik, Miko?aj", Polski s?ownik biograficzny , vol. XIV, 1969, p. 3.
  10. ^ Barbara Bie?kowska, The Scientific World of Copernicus , Springer, 1973 [4]
  11. ^ Eugeniusz Rybka for Polska Akademia Nauk (the Polish Academy of Sciences ), The Review of the Polish Academy of Sciences: Nicolaus Copernicus' Relationship with Cracow , Ossolineum, 1973, p. 23. [5]
  12. ^ Josh Sakolsky, Copernicus and Modern Astronomy , Rosen Publishing Group, 2005, p. 8. [6]
  13. ^ Marian Biskup, Regesta Copernicana (calendar of Copernicus' papers) , Ossolineum, 1973, p. 16. [7]
  14. ^ "The mother of Barbara and Lucas was a Modlibog." Alexandre Koyre, Astronomical Revolution: Copernicus – Kepler – Borelli , Cornell University Press, 1973, ISBN 0-486-27095-5 , p. 78. ( [8] )
  15. ^ a b "Adrian Krzyzanowski and John Sniadecki: Copernicus and His Native Land," The Foreign and Colonial Quarterly Review , Smith, Elder & Co., 1844, p. 367. ( [9] )
  16. ^ a b Stephen Mizwa: Nicolaus Copernicus, 1543–1943 . Kessinger Publishing, 1943, p. 38.
  17. ^ Czes?aw Mi?osz, The History of Polish Literature , University of California Press, 1983, p. 38. [10]
  18. ^ Dobrzycki and Hajdukiewicz, Polski s?ownik biograficzny , vol. XIV, 1969, p. 4.
  19. ^ The Head Office of State Archives, Poland, "Copernicus' Biography", accessed 2009-05-22, [11]
  20. ^ Jeremi Wasiuty?ski, The Solar Mystery: An Inquiry Into the Temporal and the Eternal Background of the Rise of Modern Civilization , Solum Forlag, 2003, p. 29. [12]
  21. ^ "In 1512, Bishop Watzenrode died suddenly after attending King Sigismund's wedding feast in Kraków. Rumors abounded that the bishop had been poisoned by agents of his long-time foe, the Teutonic Knights." Alan Hirshfeld: Parallax: The race to Measure the Cosmos . WH Freemand and Company, 2001, ISBN 0-7167-3711-6 , p. 38. ( [13] )
  22. ^ "The Watzelrodes—or Watzenrodes—in spite of their rather Germanic name seemed to have been good Poles (enemies of the Teutonic Order)." Alexandre Koyre , Astronomical Revolution, Copernicus – Kepler – Borelli , New York, Cornell University Press, 1973, ISBN 0-486-27095-5 , p. 38. ( [14] )
  23. ^ "[Watzenrode] was also firm, and the Teutonic Knights, who remained a constant menace, did not like him at all; the Grand Master of the order once described him as 'the devil incarnate'. [Watzenrode] was the trusted friend and advisor of three kings in succession: John Albert, Alexander (not to be confused with the poisoning pope), and Sigismund; and his influence greatly strengthened the ties between Warmia and Poland proper." Patrick Moore : The Great Astronomical Revolution: 1534–1687 and the Space Age Epilogue . Albion Publishing, 1994, ISBN 1-898563-18-7 , pp. 52, 62 ( [15] ).
  24. ^ Wojciech Iwanczak (1998). Bautz, Traugott. ed (in German). WATZENRODE, Lucas . Biographisch-Bibliographisches Kirchenlexikon (BBKL). 13 . Herzberg. col. 389–393. ISBN 3-88309-072-7 . http://www.bautz.de/bbkl/w/watzenrode.shtml .  
  25. ^ "Lucas was on more friendly terms with his successors, Johann Albert (Jan Olbracht) (from 1492 to 1501), and later Alexander (Aleksander) (from 1501 to 1506), and Sigismund (Zygmunt) I (from 1506)." Pierre Gassendi & Olivier Thill: The Life of Copernicus (1473–1543): The Man Who Did Not Change the World . Xulon Press, 2002, ISBN 1-59160-193-2 , p. 22. ( [16] )
  26. ^ "[Watzenrode] was also firm, and the Teutonic Knights, who remained a constant menace, did not like him at all; the Grand Master of the order once described him as 'the devil incarnate'. [Watzenrode] was the trusted friend and advisor of three kings in succession: John Albert, Alexander (not to be confused with the poisoning pope), and Sigismund; and his influence greatly strengthened the ties between Warmia and Poland proper." Patrick Moore : The Great Astronomical Revolution: 1534–1687 and the Space Age Epilogue . Albion Publishing, 1994, ISBN 1-898563-18-7 , pp. 52, 62. ( [17] )
  27. ^ "He spoke German, Polish and Latin with equal fluency as well as Italian." Daniel Stone: The Polish-Lithuanian State, 1386–1795 . University of Washington Press, 2001, ISBN 0-295-98093-1 , p. 101. ( [18] )
  28. ^ "He spoke Polish, Latin and Greek." Barbara Somerville: Nicolaus Copernicus: Father of Modern Astronomy . Compass Point Books, 2005, ISBN 0-7565-0812-6 , p. 10. ( [19] ).
  29. ^ "He was a linguist with a command of Polish, German and Latin, and he possessed also a knowledge of Greek rare at that period in northeastern Europe and probably had some acquaintance with Italian and Hebrew." Angus Armitage: Copernicus and Modern Astronomy . Dover Publications, 2004 (originally 1957), ISBN 0-486-43907-0 , p. 62.
  30. ^ He used Latin and German, knew enough Greek to translate the 7th-century Byzantine poet Theophylact Simocatta 's verses into Latin prose (Armitage, The World of Copernicus , pp. 75–77), and "there is ample evidence that he knew the Polish language " ( Norman Davies , God's Playground , vol. II, p. 26). During his several years' studies in Italy , Copernicus presumably would also have learned some Italian. Professor Stefan Melkowski of Nicolaus Copernicus University in Toru? likewise asserts that Copernicus spoke both German and Polish. ( [20] "O historii io wspó?czesno?ci" ("About History and Contemporaneity"), May 2003.])
  31. ^ "Deutsch war für Kopernikus Muttersprache und Alltagssprache, wenn auch der schriftliche Umgang fast ausschließlich auf Lateinisch erfolgte." Martin Carrier: Nikolaus Kopernikus . Beck'sche Reihe, CH Beck, 2001, ISBN 3-406-47577-9 , ISBN 978-3-406-47577-1 , p. 192. ( online )])
  32. ^ a b Rosen (1995, p. 127 ).
  33. ^ "Although great importance has frequently been ascribed to this fact, it does not imply that Copernicus considered himself to be a German. The 'nationes' of a medieval university had nothing in common with nations in the modern sense of the word. Students who were natives of Prussia and Silesia were automatically described as belonging to the Natio Germanorum. Furthmore, at Bologna, this was the 'privileged' nation; consequently, Copernicus had very good reason for inscribing himself on its register." Alexandre Koyre: Astronomical Revolution, Copernicus – Kepler – Borelli . Cornell University Press, 1973, ISBN 0-486-27095-5 , p. 21. ( [21] )
  34. ^ "It is important to recognize, however, that the medievel Latin concept of natio , or "nation," referred to the community of feudal lords both in Germany and elsewhere, not to 'the people' in the nineteenth-century democratic or nationalistic sense of the word." Lonnie Johnson, Central Europe: Enemies, Neighbors, Friends , Oxford University Press, 1996, ISBN 0-19-510071-9 , p. 23. ( [22] )
  35. ^ Arthur Koestler , The Sleepwalkers , 1968, p. 129.
  36. ^ Pierre Gassendi , Oliver Thill, The Life of Copernicus (1473–1543) , 2002, p. 37.
  37. ^ Nicolaus Copernicus et al., Nicolaus Copernicus Gesamtausgabe. Documenta Copernicana I.: Briefe, Texte und Übersetzungen , 1996, p. 39.
  38. ^ Melkowski, Stefan (May 2003). " O historii io wspó?czesno?ci (On History and the Present Day)" (in Polish) . http://glos.uni.torun.pl/2003/05/historia/ . Retrieved 2007-04-22 .  
  39. ^ "Kopernik, Koperek, Kopr and Koprnik in Polish—also similarly in other Slavonic languages—means simply dill such as is used in dill pickling. Be it as it may, although the present writer is more inclined towards the occupational interpretation, it is interesting to note ..." Stephen Mizwa , Nicolaus Copernicus, 1543–1943 , Kessinger Publishing, 1943, p. 37 .
  40. ^ Armitage, p. 51.
  41. ^ a b Gingerich (2004), p. 143.
  42. ^ Nicolaus Copernicus Gesamtausgabe : Urkunden, Akten und Nachrichten: Texte und Übersetzungen , p. 23 ff . ISBN 3-05-003009-7 .
  43. ^ Marian Biskup, Regesta Copernicana ( Calendar of Copernicus' Papers ), Ossolineum , 1973, page 32 .
  44. ^ Biskup (1973), pp. 38, 82 .
  45. ^ Carlo Malagola, Della vita e delle opere di Antonio Urceo detto Codro: studi e ricerche , 1878, pp. 562–65 .
  46. ^ "Copernicus, Nicolaus" . Encyclopædia Britannica Online . Encyclopædia Britannica. 2009 . http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/136591/Nicolaus-Copernicus . Retrieved 2009-11-21 .  
  47. ^ Maximilian Curtze, Ueber die Orthographie des Namens Coppernicus , 1879, [23] .
  48. ^ a b c Czes?aw Mi?osz , The History of Polish Literature , p. 38.
  49. ^ Angus Armitage, The World of Copernicus , p. 55.
  50. ^ Jerzy Dobrzycki and Leszek Hajdukiewicz, "Kopernik, Miko?aj", Polski s?ownik biograficzny , pp. 4–5.
  51. ^ a b c d e Jerzy Dobrzycki and Leszek Hajdukiewicz, "Kopernik, Miko?aj", Polski s?ownik biograficzny , p. 5.
  52. ^ Jerzy Dobrzycki and Leszek Hajdukiewicz, "Kopernik, Miko?aj", Polski s?ownik biograficzny , pp. 5–6.
  53. ^ a b c d e f g h Jerzy Dobrzycki and Leszek Hajdukiewicz, "Kopernik, Miko?aj", Polski s?ownik biograficzny , p. 6.
  54. ^ Rabin (2005) .
  55. ^ Gingerich (2004, pp. 187–89, 201) ; Koyré (1973, p. 94) ; Kuhn (1957, p. 93) ; Rosen (2004, p. 123) ; Rabin (2005) . Robbins (1964, px) , however, includes Copernicus among a list of Renaissance astronomers who "either practiced astrology themselves or countenanced its practice."
  56. ^ Sedlar (1994).
  57. ^ Angus Armitage, The World of Copernicus , pp. 75–77.
  58. ^ a b c d e Jerzy Dobrzycki and Leszek Hajdukiewicz, "Kopernik, Miko?aj", Polski s?ownik biograficzny , p. 7.
  59. ^ Jerzy Dobrzycki and Leszek Hajdukiewicz, "Kopernik, Miko?aj", Polski s?ownik biograficzny , pp. 7–8.
  60. ^ Repcheck (2007), p. 66.
  61. ^ Copernicus, Nicolaus, Minor Works (Edward Rosen, translator), Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1992, pp. 176–215.
  62. ^ Oliver Volckart, "Early Beginnings of the Quantity Theory of Money and Their Context in Polish and Prussian Monetary Policies, c. 1520–1550", The Economic History Review , New Series 50 (August 1997) 3, pp. 430–49.
  63. ^ a b c d e f Repcheck, Jack (2007). Copernicus' Secret . New York, NY: Simon & Schuster. pp. 79, 78, 184, 186. ISBN 978-0-7432-8951-1 .  
  64. ^ a b c Jerzy Dobrzycki and Leszek Hajdukiewicz, "Kopernik, Miko?aj", Polski s?ownik biograficzny , vol. XIV, 1969, p. 11.
  65. ^ Angus Armitage, The World of Copernicus , pp. 97–98.
  66. ^ Angus Armitage, The World of Copernicus , p. 98.
  67. ^ Kuhn, 1957, pp. 187–88 .
  68. ^ Photograph of a portrait of Copernicus by an unknown painter. The original was looted—possibly destroyed—by the Germans in World War II. Jan ?wieczy?ski, Katalog skradzionych i zaginionych dóbr kultury (Catalog of Stolen and Missing Cultural Property), Warsaw , O?rodek Informacyjno-Koordynacyjny Ochrony Obiektów Muzealnych (Center of Information and Coordination for the Safeguarding of Museum Objects), 1988.
  69. ^ A reference to the "Commentariolus" is contained in a library catalogue, dated 1 May 1514, of a 16th-century historian, Matthew of Miechow, so it must have begun circulating before that date (Koyré, 1973, p.85 ; Gingerich, 2004, p.32 ). Thoren (1990, p.99 ) gives the length of the manuscript as 40 pages.
  70. ^ Goddu (2010: 245–6}}
  71. ^ Schönberg, Nicholas, Letter to Nicolaus Copernicus , translated by Edward Rosen .
  72. ^ Koyré (1973, pp. 27, 90) and Rosen (1995, pp. 64,184) take the view that Copernicus was indeed concerned about possible objections from theologians, while Lindberg and Numbers (1986) argue against it. Koestler (1963) also denies it. Indirect evidence that Copernicus was concerned about objections from theologians comes from a letter written to him by Andreas Osiander in 1541, in which Osiander advises Copernicus to adopt a proposal by which he says "you will be able to appease the Peripatetics and theologians whose opposition you fear." (Koyré, 1973, pp. 35, 90)
  73. ^ Dreyer (1953, p.319) .
  74. ^ a b Easton, Adam (21 November 2008). "Polish tests 'confirm Copernicus'" . BBC News . http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/europe/7740908.stm . Retrieved 2010-01-18 .  
  75. ^ Bowcott, Owen (21 November 2008). " 16th-century skeleton identified as astronomer Copernicus " The Guardian . Retrieved 2010-01-18.
  76. ^ Bogdanowicz, W.; Allen, M.; Branicki, W.; et al. , M.; Gajewska, M.; Kupiec, T. (2009). "Genetic identification of putative remains of the famous astronomer Nicolaus Copernicus" . PNAS 106 (30): 12279–12282. Bibcode 2009PNAS..10612279B . doi : 10.1073/pnas.0901848106 . PMC 2718376 . PMID 19584252 . //www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2718376 .  
  77. ^ Gingerich, O. (2009). "The Copernicus grave mystery" . PNAS 106 (30): 12215–12216. Bibcode 2009PNAS..10612215G . doi : 10.1073/pnas.0907491106 . PMC 2718392 . PMID 19622737 . //www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2718392 .  
  78. ^ Astronomer Copernicus Reburied as Hero (New York Times, 22 May 2010)
  79. ^ Dreyer (1953 , pp. 40–52) ; Linton (2004, p. 20) .
  80. ^ Dreyer (1953 , pp. 123–35) ; Linton (2004, p. 24) .
  81. ^ Dreyer (1953, pp.135–48 ); Heath (1913 , pp.301–8)
  82. ^ Particularly his use of the Tusi couple and his models for the motions of Mercury and the Moon (Linton 2004 , pp. 124 , 137–38 ).
  83. ^ Rosen (2004 , pp. 58–59 ).
  84. ^ a b c Danielson (2006) .
  85. ^ Koestler (1959, p.191)
  86. ^ Rosen (1995, pp.187–192) , originally published in 1967 in Saggi su Galileo Galilei . Rosen is particularly scathing about this and other statements in The Sleepwalkers which he criticises as inaccurate.
  87. ^ Gingerich (2004) , DeMarco (2004) [24]
  88. ^ a b c d e f Copernicus and Martin Luther: An Encounter Between Science and Religion by Donald H. Kobe, American Journal of Physics, March 1998, Volume 66, Issue 3, pp. 190
  89. ^ a b Rivka Feldhay (1995). Galileo and the Church . Cambridge University Press.  
  90. ^ Rosen (1995, p.158)
  91. ^ Rosen (1995, pp.151–59)
  92. ^ a b c d e f Robert S. Westman (2011). The Copernican Question: Prognostication, Skepticism, and Celestial Order . Los Angeles, CA: University of California Press.  
  93. ^ a b c d e Calvin's Attitude Toward Copernicus by Edward Rosen, Journal of the History of Ideas, Vol. 21, No. 3 (Jul. – Sep., 1960), pp. 431–441 Published by: University of Pennsylvania Press
  94. ^ a b c Edward Rosen (2003). Copernicus and his successors . Hambledon Continuum.  
  95. ^ a b I. Bernard Cohen (1985). Harvard College Press.  
  96. ^ Exercitations concerning the Name, Original, Nature, Use, and Continuance of a Day of Sacred Rest , Exercitation II = An Exposition of the Epistle to the Hebrews, Exercitation XXXVI, section 16 ( Works , London, 1850–1855; re-issued, Edinburgh, 1862, XIX, 310).
  97. ^ a b c d e f Maurice A. Finocchiaro (2010). Defending Copernicus and Galileo: Critical Reasoning in the Two Affairs . Springer Science & Business Media.  
  98. ^ In fact, in the Pythagorean cosmological system the Sun was not motionless.
  99. ^ Decree of the General Congregation of the Index, 5 March 1616, translated from the Latin by Finocchiaro (1989, pp.148–149) . An on-line copy of Finocchiaro's translation has been made available by Gagné (2005) .
  100. ^ Fantoli (2005, pp.118–19) ; Finocchiaro (1989, pp.148, 153) . On-line copies of Finocchiaro's translations of the relevant documents, Inquisition Minutes of 25 February 1616 and Cardinal Bellarmine's certificate of 26 May 1616 , have been made available by Gagné (2005) . This notice of the decree would not have prevented Galileo from discussing heliocentrism solely as a mathematical hypothesis, but a stronger formal injunction (Finocchiaro, 1989, p.147-148) not to teach it "in any way whatever, either orally or in writing", allegedly issued to him by the Commissary of the Holy Office, Father Michelangelo Segizzi, would certainly have done so (Fantoli, 2005, pp.119–20, 137) . There has been much controversy over whether the copy of this injunction in the Vatican archives is authentic; if so, whether it was ever issued; and if so, whether it was legally valid (Fantoli, 2005, pp.120–43) .
  101. ^ Catholic Encyclopedia .
  102. ^ From the Inquisition's sentence of 22 June 1633 (de Santillana , 1976, pp.306–10 ; Finocchiaro 1989, pp. 287–91)
  103. ^ Heilbron (2005, p. 307) ; Coyne (2005, p. 347) .
  104. ^ McMullin (2005, p. 6) ; Coyne (2005, pp. 346–47) .
  105. ^ Burleigh, Michael (1988). Germany turns eastwards. A study of Ostforschung in the Third Reich . CUP Archive. pp. 60, 133, 280. ISBN 0-521-35120-0 .  
  106. ^ a b Rudnicki, Konrad (November–December 2006). "The Genuine Copernican Cosmological Principle" . Southern Cross Review : note 2 . http://southerncrossreview.org/50/rudnicki1.htm . Retrieved 2010-01-21 .  
  107. ^ a b Mi?osz, Czes?aw (1983). The history of Polish literature (2 ed.). University of California Press. p. 37. ISBN 0-520-04477-0 .  
  108. ^ a b c d Davies, Norman (2005). God's playground. A History of Poland in Two Volumes . II . Oxford University Press. p. 20. ISBN 0-19-925340-4 .  
  109. ^ Manfred Weissenbacher, Sources of Power: How Energy Forges Human History , Praeger, 2009, p. 170.
  110. ^ "Copernicus, Nicolaus" . Encyclopædia Britannica Online . Encyclopædia Britannica. 2007 . http://www.britannica.com/eb/article-9105759 . Retrieved 2007-09-21 .  
  111. ^ "Copernicus, Nicolaus", Encyclopedia Americana , 1986, vol. 7, pp. 755–56.
  112. ^ "Nicholas Copernicus" , The Columbia Encyclopedia , sixth edition, 2008. Encyclopedia.com. 18 July 2009.
  113. ^ "Copernicus, Nicolaus", The Oxford World Encyclopedia , Oxford University Press, 1998.
  114. ^ 14 July 2009 – Element 112 shall be named “copernicium”, http://www.popsci.com/
  115. ^ Renner, Terrence (20 February 2010). "Element 112 is Named Copernicium" . International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry . http://www.iupac.org/web/nt/2010-02-20_112_Copernicium . Retrieved 2010-02-20 .  
  116. ^ Calendar of the Church Year according to the Episcopal Church

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