Portugal

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Português República
República Portuguesa
Bandeira Brasão
Hino : " A Portuguesa "
"Hymn O Português"
Localização de   Portugal    (Verde escuro)

- Sobre o continente europeu    (Verde e cinza escuro)
- Na União Europeia    (Verde) - [ Legenda ]

Capital
(E maior cidade)
Lisboa
38 ° 46'N 9 ° 9'W / 38,767 ° N ° W 9,15 / 38,767; -9,15
Língua oficial (s) Português
Reconhecida línguas regionais Mirandês 1
Grupos étnicos (2007) 96,87% Português e 3,13% dos imigrantes legais ( cabo-verdianos , brasileiros , ucranianos , angolanos , etc) [1]
Demonym Português
Governo República parlamentar
- Presidente Aníbal Cavaco Silva ( PSD )
- Primeiro ministro Pedro Passos Coelho (PSD)
- Presidente da Assembléia Assunção Esteves (PSD)
Formação Data convencional para a Independência é 1139
- Fundação 868
- Re-fundação 1095
- Soberania de facto 24 de junho de 1128
- Reino Julho 25, 1139
- Reconhecido 05 de outubro de 1143
- Reconhecimento Papal 23 de maio de 1179
- Restauração da independência 01 de dezembro de 1640
- Restauração da independência reconhecida 13 de fevereiro de 1668
- República 05 de outubro de 1910
- Democracia 25 de abril de 1974
Área
- Total 92,090 km 2 ( 110 )
35.645 sq mi
- Água (%) 0,5
População
- 2011 estimativa 10647763 [2] ( 77 )
- 2011 census 10555853 [3]
- Densidade 115/km 2 ( 96 )
298/sq mi
PIB ( PPP ) 2010 estimativa
- Total 247,037 bilhões dólares [4]
- Per capita $ 23.222 [4]
PIB (nominal) 2010 estimativa
- Total 229,336 bilhões dólares [4]
- Per capita $ 21.558 [4]
Gini (2009) 33,7 [5]
IDH (2010) aumento 0,795 [6] (muito alto) ( 40 )
Moeda Euro ( ) 2 ( EUR )
Fuso horário WET 3 ( UTC 0)
- Verão ( DST ) WEST ( UTC +1)
Formatos de data dd-mm-aaaa, aaaa-mm-dd, yyyy / mm / dd
Unidades no direito
Código ISO 3166 PT
Internet TLD . Pt 4
Código de chamada 351
1 Mirandês , falado em algumas aldeias do concelho de Miranda do Douro , foi oficialmente reconhecido em 1999 (Lei n. ° 7 / 99 de 29 de Janeiro), desde então conceder um funcionário direito de uso mirandesa à minoria linguística é em causa. [7] A Língua Gestual Português também é reconhecida.
2 Antes de 1999: Português escudo .

Portugal ( Ouvir i / p ?r t? ? ? ?l / ; Português : Portugal, IPA: [pu?tu?a?] ; Mirandês : Pertual), oficialmente a República Português ( Português : República Portuguesa; Mirandês : República Pertuesa), [8] é um país situado no sudoeste da Europa, na Península Ibérica . Portugal é o país mais ocidental da Europa, e faz fronteira com o Oceano Atlântico a oeste e sul e por Espanha a norte ea leste. O Atlântico arquipélagos dos Açores e Madeira são parte de Portugal. O país é nomeado após a sua segunda maior cidade, Porto , cujo nome latino era Portus Cale .

A terra dentro das fronteiras de hoje Português República tem sido continuamente ocupada desde tempos pré-históricos : ocupado pelo Gallaeci e lusitanos , integrado no Império Romano e, mais tarde colonizada por povos germânicos, como o suevo e os visigodos , no século 8 as terras foram conquistada pelos mouros . Durante o cristão Reconquista , Portugal estabeleceu-se como um reino independente, afirmando ser o mais antigo europeu do Estado-nação . [9]

Nos séculos 15 e 16, como resultado de pioneira na Era dos Descobrimentos , Portugal expandiu ocidental influência e estabeleceu um império global que incluía possessões na África , Ásia , Oceania e América do Sul , tornando-se um dos direitos econômicos mais importantes do mundo, políticos e potências militares. O Império Português foi o primeiro império global da história, [10] e também a mais longa vida dos impérios coloniais europeus. No entanto, o status internacional do país foi bastante reduzido durante o século 19, especialmente após a independência do Brasil , a sua maior colônia.

Após a revolução de 1910 depôs a monarquia, o instável Português Primeira República foi estabelecida sendo então substituído pelo "Estado Novo" ditadura . A democracia foi restaurada após a Segunda Guerra Colonial Português e da Revolução dos Cravos em 1974, ea última de Portugal províncias ultramarinas se tornou independente (o mais proeminente Angola e Moçambique ), o último território ultramarino, Macau , foi cedida à China em 1999.

Portugal é um país desenvolvido com uma economia avançada e de alta renda, com um Índice de Desenvolvimento Humano muito alto. Ele tem o mundo 19 mais alta qualidade de vida , de acordo com a Economist Intelligence Unit , e é um dos mais do mundo globalizado e pacífica das nações. É membro da União Europeia e as Nações Unidas , bem como um membro fundador da União Latina , a Organização dos Estados Ibero-americanos , da OCDE , da NATO , da Comunidade dos Países de Língua Português e da Zona Euro .

Conteúdo

[ editar ] História

[ editar ] História antiga

O início da história de Portugal é compartilhada com o resto da Península Ibérica . O nome de Portugal deriva do nome romano Portus Cale . A região foi resolvida pelo pré- celtas e celtas, dando origem aos povos como o Gallaeci , Lusitanos , Celtici e Cynetes , visitada por fenícios e cartagineses , incorporada na República Romana domínios como Lusitânia e parte da Gallaecia (ambos parte da Hispania ), depois de 45 aC até 298 dC, estabeleceu-se novamente por suevo , Buri , e visigodos , e conquistado por mouros . Outras influências menores incluem alguns vestígios do século 5 de Alan liquidação, que foram encontrados em Alenquer , Coimbra e até mesmo de Lisboa . [11]

[ editar ] Reconquista

A Reconquista , 790-1300

Durante a Reconquista período, os cristãos reconquistaram a Península Ibérica a partir do muçulmano e árabe dominação. Em 868, o Condado de Primeiro de Portugal foi formado. A vitória sobre os muçulmanos na Batalha de Ourique em 1139 é tradicionalmente considerada como a ocasião em que o Condado de Portugal como um feudo do Reino de León foi transformado no independentes Reino de Portugal .

Em 24 de junho de 1128, a Batalha de São Mamede ocorreu perto de Guimarães . D. Afonso Henriques , conde de Portugal, derrotou a sua mãe condessa Teresa e seu amante Fernão Peres de Trava , estabelecendo-se como único líder. Afonso Henriques declarou oficialmente a independência de Portugal, quando ele proclamou-se rei de Portugal em 25 de Julho 1139, após a Batalha de Ourique . Ele foi reconhecido como tal em 1143 por Alfonso VII , rei de Leão e Castela, e em 1179 pelo Papa Alexandre III .

O Castelo de Guimarães , Guimarães - a cidade é conhecida como o berço de Portugal.

Afonso Henriques e seus sucessores, auxiliada por militares ordens monásticas , empurrados para o sul para expulsar os mouros, como o tamanho de Portugal abrangia cerca de metade de sua área atual. Em 1249, este Reconquista terminou com a captura do Algarve , na costa sul, dando a Portugal a sua atual fronteiras, com pequenas excepções.

Em 1348 e 1349, como o resto da Europa, Portugal foi devastada pela Peste Negra . [12]

Em 1373, Portugal fez uma aliança com a Inglaterra , que é a aliança mais antiga do mundo.

Em 1383, o rei de Castela , marido da filha do rei Português que morreu sem um herdeiro masculino, alegou que seu trono. Uma revolta que se seguiu populares levaram à Crise 1383-1385 . Uma facção de nobres e plebeus mesquinhos, liderada por João de Aviz (mais tarde D. João I ), destacados pelo general Nuno Álvares Pereira derrotou os castelhanos na batalha de Aljubarrota . Esta batalha comemorou ainda é um símbolo da glória e da luta pela independência da vizinha Espanha.

[ editar ] Exploração, colonização e comércio

Vasco da Gama desembarca em Calecute ( Subcontinente Indiano ), em 20 de maio, 1498.

Nas décadas seguintes, Portugal liderou a exploração do mundo e comprometeu-se a Era dos Descobrimentos . Príncipe Henrique, o Navegador , filho de D. João I, tornou-se o principal patrocinador e patrono deste esforço.

Em 1415, Portugal conquistou a primeira de suas colônias no exterior, conquistando Ceuta . Foi o primeiro centro comercial próspero islâmico no Norte de África . Seguiram-se as primeiras descobertas no Atlântico : Madeira e os Açores , o que levou à primeira colonização movimentos.

Ao longo do século 15, Português exploradores navegaram na costa da África, estabelecendo postos de comércio de vários tipos comuns de commodities comercializáveis ??no momento , variando de ouro para os escravos , uma vez que procurou uma rota para a Índia e suas especiarias , que eram cobiçados na Europa .

O Tratado de Tordesilhas , destinado a resolver a disputa que tinha sido criado após o regresso de Christopher Columbus , foi assinado em 07 de junho de 1494, e dividiu as terras recém-descobertas fora da Europa entre Portugal e Espanha ao longo de um meridiano 370 léguas a oeste do Cabo Verde ilhas (na costa oeste da África).

Em 1498, Vasco da Gama finalmente chegou à Índia e trouxe prosperidade econômica para Portugal e sua população de 1,7 milhões de habitantes.

Em 1500, Pedro Álvares Cabral descobriu Brasil e reclamou-a para Portugal. [13] Dez anos depois, Afonso de Albuquerque conquistou Goa , na Índia , Ormuz no Estreito Pérsico , e Malaca , agora um estado no Brasil . Assim, o império Português realizada domínio sobre o comércio no Oceano Índico e Atlântico Sul. Os marinheiros Português estabelecidos para alcançar a Ásia Oriental navegando para o leste da Europa pouso em lugares como Taiwan , Japão , a ilha de Timor , e podem ter sido os primeiros europeus a descobrir a Austrália e até na Nova Zelândia . [14]

O Tratado de Saragoça , assinado em 22 abril de 1529 entre Portugal e Espanha, especificou o antimeridian para a linha de demarcação previsto no Tratado de Tordesilhas. Todos esses fatos fizeram Portugal grande potência econômica do mundo, militares e políticos do século 15 ao início do século 16.

[ editar ] União Ibérica e Restauração

Aclamação de D. João IV como Rei de Portugal. Pintura de Veloso Salgado, no Museu Militar, Lisboa .
Um mapa anacrónico do Império Português (1415-1999). Vermelho - posses reais; Olive - explorações; Orange - áreas de influência e comercial; Pink - reivindicações de soberania; Verde - feitorias; Blue - explorações marítimas principal, rotas e áreas de influência. A disputada descoberta Português da Austrália não é mostrado.

Independência de Portugal foi interrompida entre 1580 e 1640. Isso ocorreu porque os dois últimos reis da Casa de Aviz - King Sebastian , que morreu na batalha de Alcácer Quibir , em Marrocos , e seu tio-avô e sucessor, o Rei Henrique de Portugal - ambos morreram sem deixar herdeiros, resultando na extinção de que a casa real. Posteriormente, Filipe II de Espanha reclamou o trono e assim tornou-se Filipe I de Portugal. Embora Portugal não perder a sua independência formal, que foi governado pelo mesmo monarca que governou a Espanha , brevemente formando uma união dos reinos, como uma união pessoal . A junção das duas coroas carentes Portugal de uma política separada estrangeira, e levou ao envolvimento na Guerra dos Oitenta Anos sendo travada na Europa, o tempo entre a Espanha ea Holanda . Guerra levou a uma deterioração das relações com mais antigo aliado de Portugal, Inglaterra , ea perda de Ormuz. A partir de 1595-1663 a Guerra Holandesa-Português primeiro lugar, a empresas holandesas invadindo muitos Português colônias e interesses comerciais no Brasil, África, Índia e Extremo Oriente, resultando na perda do monopólio do comércio indiano Mar Português.

Em 1640, D. João IV liderou uma revolta apoiada por nobres descontentes e foi proclamado rei. A Guerra da Restauração Português entre Portugal e Espanha sobre as consequências da revolta de 1640, terminou o período de sessenta anos da União Ibérica sob a Casa de Habsburgo . Este foi o início da Casa de Bragança , que reinou em Portugal até 1910.

Segundo o historiador Leslie Bethell , "Em 1700 Portugal tinha uma população de cerca de dois milhões de pessoas. Durante o século XVIII cerca de 400 mil saiu para [o Português colônia de] Brasil , apesar dos esforços pela coroa para colocar graves restrições à emigração. " [ 15]

[ editar ] era pombalina

Em 1738, Sebastião de Melo, o talentoso filho de um escudeiro de Lisboa, iniciou a carreira diplomática como o Português embaixador em Londres e mais tarde em Viena . A rainha consorte de Portugal, arquiduquesa Maria Ana Josefa da Áustria , gostava de Melo, e depois de sua primeira esposa morreu, ela organizados segundo casamento da viúva de Melo para a filha do marechal de campo austríaco Josef Leopold, Conde von Daun . Rei João V de Portugal , no entanto, não ficou satisfeito e lembrou Melo a Portugal em 1749. João V morreu no ano seguinte e seu filho, D. José I de Portugal foi coroado. Em contraste com seu pai, D. José I gostava de de Melo, e com a Rainha Mãe aprovação 's, apontou Melo como Ministro dos Negócios Estrangeiros. Como a confiança do Rei em aumento de Melo, o rei confiou-lhe mais controle do Estado. Em 1755, Sebastião de Melo foi feito primeiro-ministro. Impressionado pelo sucesso económico britânico que tinha presenciado, enquanto embaixador, ele implementou com sucesso semelhante econômicas políticas em Portugal. Ele aboliu a escravidão em Portugal e nas colônias Português na Índia ; reorganizou o exército ea marinha; reestruturou a Universidade de Coimbra , e terminou a discriminação contra diferentes Christian seitas em Portugal.

Mas o maior reformas Sebastião de Melo eram económica e financeira, com a criação de várias empresas e corporações para regular todas as atividades comerciais. Ele demarcou a região para a produção de porta para garantir a qualidade do vinho, e esta foi a primeira tentativa de controlar a qualidade do vinho e da produção na Europa. Ele governou com mão forte, impondo a lei estrita sobre todas as classes da sociedade Português da alta nobreza para os mais pobres da classe trabalhadora, junto com uma revisão generalizada do sistema fiscal do país. Estas reformas ele ganhou inimigos na classe alta, especialmente entre a alta nobreza, que desprezava-o como um arrivista social.

1755 Gravura em metal cobre mostrando de Lisboa em chamas e um tsunami avassalador dos navios no porto após o terramoto de 1755 .

Desastre caiu sobre Portugal na manhã do dia 01 de novembro de 1755, quando Lisboa foi atingida por um violento terremoto com uma estimativa de escala Richter de magnitude de 9. A cidade foi arrasada pelo terremoto eo tsunami subsequente e incêndios que se seguiram. [16] Sebastião de Melo sobreviveu por um golpe de sorte e logo em seguida embarcou na reconstrução da cidade, com sua famosa frase: "O que agora Nós enterrar os mortos e alimentem os vivos ".

Apesar da calamidade e enorme número de mortos , Lisboa não sofreu epidemias e dentro de menos de um ano já estava sendo reconstruída. O novo centro de Lisboa foi projetado para resistir a terramotos subsequentes. Modelos de arquitetura foram construídas para testes, e os efeitos de um terremoto foram simulados pelo marchar de tropas dos modelos. Os edifícios e praças da Baixa Pombalina de Lisboa ainda permanecem como uma das atrações turísticas de Lisboa: Eles representam a primeira prova de tremores edifícios [ carece de fontes? ]. Sebastião de Melo fez também uma importante contribuição ao estudo da sismologia através da concepção de um inquérito que foi enviado a todas as paróquias do país.

Na sequência do terramoto, D. José I deu o seu primeiro-ministro ainda mais poder, e Sebastião de Melo se tornou um ditador, poderoso progressiva. Como seu poder cresceu, os seus inimigos aumentaram em número, e as disputas com a alta nobreza tornaram-se freqüentes. Em 1758 D. José I foi ferido em uma tentativa de assassinato. A família de Távora eo Duque de Aveiro foram implicados e executados após um rápido julgamento. Os jesuítas foram expulsos do país e os seus bens confiscados pela coroa. Sebastião de Melo não mostrou misericórdia, tendo perseguido cada pessoa envolvida, inclusive mulheres e crianças. Este foi o golpe final que quebrou o poder da aristocracia e garantiu a vitória do ministro contra seus inimigos. Com base em sua determinação rápida, D. José I fez o seu leal ministro Conde de Oeiras em 1759.

Em 1762 a Espanha invadiu território Português , como parte da Guerra dos Sete Anos , no entanto por 1763 o status quo entre Espanha e Portugal, antes da guerra tinha sido restaurado.

No seguimento do caso Távora, o novo Conde de Oeiras não conheceu da oposição. Made "Marquês de Pombal" em 1770, ele efetivamente governou Portugal até D. José I da morte 's em 1779. No entanto, os historiadores também argumentam que a "iluminação", Pombal, enquanto de longo alcance, foi principalmente um mecanismo para a autocracia aumentar em detrimento da liberdade individual e, especialmente, um aparato para esmagar a oposição, a crítica suprimindo, e promover a exploração econômica colonial, bem como a intensificação livro censura e consolidar o controle pessoal e lucro. [17]

O novo governante, a rainha Maria I de Portugal , não gostava do Marquês por causa do poder que acumulou, e nunca o perdoou pela crueldade com que ele despachou o da família Távora , e sobre sua ascensão ao trono, ela fez o que prometeu há muito tempo a fazer: ela retirou todos os seus escritórios políticos. Pombal morreu pacificamente na sua propriedade em Pombal em 1782.

No outono de 1807, Napoleão moveu tropas francesas através da Espanha para invadir Portugal. De 1807 a 1811, Grã-Bretanha Português forças iria lutar com sucesso contra a invasão francesa de Portugal , enquanto a família real, incluindo Maria I, mudou-se para o território Português do Brasil , na América do Sul.

[ editar ] independência do Brasil

Brasil pouco antes da independência em 1822 - Cisplatina (atual Uruguai ) foi uma das adições passado para o território do Brasil sob o governo Português.

Portugal começou um declínio lento, mas inexorável até o século 20. Esta queda foi acelerada pela independência em 1822 da maior posse colonial do país, Brasil . Em 1807, como Napoleão Bonaparte 's exército fechada em capital de Portugal de Lisboa , o Príncipe Regente João VI de Portugal transferiu sua corte para o Brasil e estabeleceu Rio de Janeiro como a capital do Império Português. Em 1815, o Império Português mudou seu nome para o Reino Unido de Portugal, Brasil e Algarves .

Devido à mudança em seu status e com a chegada da família real Português, brasileiro administrativa, cívica, económica , militar, educacional e científica aparelho foram ampliados e altamente modernizado. Português e os seus aliados tropas britânicas lutaram contra a invasão francesa de Portugal e em 1815 a situação na Europa tinha arrefecido suficientemente que João VI seria capaz de voltar em segurança para Lisboa. No entanto, o rei de Portugal permaneceu no Brasil até o Revolução Liberal de 1820 , que começou no Porto , exigiu o seu regresso a Lisboa em 1821.

Assim, ele regressou a Portugal, mas deixou seu filho Pedro no comando do Brasil. Quando o rei tentou no ano seguinte para devolver o Reino do Brasil ao status subordinado como um principado , seu filho Pedro, com o apoio esmagador das elites brasileiras, declarou a independência do Brasil de Portugal. Cisplatina (Estado soberano de hoje do Uruguai), no sul, foi uma das adições passado para o território do Brasil sob o governo Português.

[ editar ] África Colonial Português

A rosa Mapa projeto: A pretensão de Portugal de soberania, sobre as terras entre Angola Português e Português Moçambique .

Na altura do Europeu de colonialismo no século 19, Portugal já havia perdido seu território em América do Sul e todos, mas algumas bases na Ásia . Luanda , Benguela , Bissau , Marques Lourenço , Porto Amboim e da Ilha de Moçambique estão entre os mais antigos Português -fundou as cidades portuárias em seus territórios Africano. Durante esta fase, com foco na expansão do colonialismo Português seus postos avançados na África em territórios nação porte para competir com outras potências européias lá.

Com a Conferência de Berlim de 1884, os territórios Português África tiveram suas fronteiras formalmente criada a pedido de Portugal, a fim de proteger os interesses de muitos séculos no continente Português de rivalidades seduzido pela Scramble for Africa . Português cidades da África e cidades como Nova Lisboa , Sá da Bandeira , Porto Silva , Malanje , Tete , Vila Junqueiro , Pery Vila e Vila Cabral foram fundadas ou reconstruído interior durante este período e para além dela. Novas cidades costeiras como Beira , Moçâmedes , Lobito , João Belo , Nacala e Porto Amélia , também foram fundadas. Mesmo antes da virada do século, vias férreas como férrea de Benguela em Angola, e os comboios da Beira em Moçambique, começou a ser construído para ligar as zonas costeiras e regiões do interior selecionados.

Outros episódios durante este período da presença Português em África incluem o Ultimato britânico 1890 . Isto obrigou os militares a recuar Português da terra entre as colônias Português de Moçambique e Angola (a maioria dos atuais Zimbabwe e Zâmbia ), que havia sido reivindicado por Portugal e incluiu em seu " Mapa-de-rosa ", que entrou em choque com as aspirações britânico criar um Cabo ao Cairo Railway . Os territórios Português em África foram Cabo Verde , São Tomé e Príncipe , Guiné-Português , Angola e Moçambique . A fortaleza minúscula de São João Baptista de Ajudá , na costa de Daomé , também foi sob o governo Português. Além disso, o país ainda governou o território asiático de Português da Índia , Timor Português e Macau .

[ editar ] República

Manuel II , último rei de Portugal.

Em 01 de fevereiro de 1908, o rei Carlos I de Portugal e seu herdeiro , o príncipe Luis Filipe , foram assassinados em Lisboa . Sob seu domínio, Portugal foi duas vezes declarada falida - em 14 de Junho de 1892, e novamente em 10 de maio de 1902 -. causando tumulto social, perturbações económicas, protestos, revoltas e críticas da monarquia Manuel II de Portugal se tornar o novo rei, mas acabou por ser derrubado pela revolução de 05 de outubro de 1910 , que aboliu o regime instalado e republicanismo em Portugal. Instabilidade política e as fraquezas econômicas eram terreno fértil para o caos e agitação durante o Primeiro Português República , agravado pela intervenção militar Português na I Guerra Mundial , o que levou a um golpe de Estado militar em 1926 ea criação da Ditadura Nacional ( Ditadura Nacional ).

Este, por sua vez levou ao estabelecimento da ditadura de direita do Estado Novo sob António de Oliveira Salazar em 1933. Portugal foi um dos cinco países europeus a permanecer neutro na Segunda Guerra Mundial . A partir de 1940 a 1960, Portugal foi membro fundador da NATO , da OCDE e da Associação Europeia de Comércio Livre (EFTA). Aos poucos, novos projetos de desenvolvimento econômico e deslocalização de branco continente Português cidadãos no colônias ultramarinas em África foram iniciadas, com Angola e Moçambique , como os territórios maiores e mais ricos no exterior, sendo os principais alvos dessas iniciativas.

[ editar ] Fim do colonialismo

Mapa das províncias Overseas Português em África, o tempo da Guerra Colonial Português (1961-1974).

Após a Índia alcançou a independência em 1947, os moradores de Dadra e Nagar Haveli , com o apoio do governo indiano e com a ajuda de organizações pró-independência, libertou os territórios de Dadra e Nagar Haveli regra do Português em 1954. [18] Em 1961 , São João Baptista de Ajudá a anexação pela República do Daomé foi o início de um processo que levou à dissolução final do Império Português de séculos. Segundo o censo de 1921, São João Baptista de Ajudá tinha 5 habitantes e, no momento do ultimato por parte do Governo Daomé, que tinha apenas 2 habitantes representando Soberania Português. Outro retiro forçado de territórios ultramarinos ocorreu em dezembro de 1961, quando Portugal se recusou a abandonar os territórios de Goa , Damão e Diu . Como resultado, o Exército Português e Marinha estiveram envolvidos em conflitos armados em sua colônia de Português da Índia contra a forças armadas indianas . A operação resultou na derrota da guarnição Português defensiva, que foi forçado a se render. O resultado foi a perda dos territórios remanescentes Português no subcontinente indiano .

Também no início dos anos 1960, movimentos de independência nas províncias do Português no exterior de Angola , Moçambique e Guiné na África, resultou na Guerra Colonial Português (1961-1974).

[ editar ] Revolução dos Cravos

Durante todo o período da guerra colonial Portugal teve de lidar com a dissidência crescente, embargos de armas e outras sanções punitivas impostas pela maioria da comunidade internacional. No entanto, o Estado autoritário e conservador regime Novo, em primeiro lugar instalado e governada por António de Oliveira Salazar e a partir de 1968 liderado por Marcelo Caetano , tentou preservar um império secular vasta intercontinental com uma área total de 2168071 km 2. [19] O Governo Português eo exército conseguiu resistir a descolonização dos seus territórios ultramarinos, até abril de 1974, quando uma esquerda militar incruento golpe em Lisboa , conhecido como a Revolução dos Cravos , abriu caminho para a independência dos territórios ultramarinos na África e Ásia, como bem como para a restauração da democracia após dois anos de um período de transição conhecido como PREC ( Processo Revolucionário Em Curso , ou em curso Processo Revolucionário). Este período foi caracterizado por convulsões sociais e disputas de poder entre esquerda e direita forças políticas. Algumas facções , incluindo o Álvaro Cunhal 's Partido Comunista Português (PCP), tentou sem sucesso transformar o país em um comunista do estado. A retirada de territórios ultramarinos ea aceitação de termos de sua independência por representantes cabeça Português para negociações no exterior, o que criaria recém-independentes países comunistas em 1975 (mais notavelmente a República Popular de Angola ea República Popular de Moçambique ), levou a uma massa êxodo de cidadãos dos territórios Africano Português de Portugal (principalmente de Português Angola e Moçambique ). [20] [21]

Over a million destitute Portuguese refugees fled the former Portuguese colonies. Mário Soares and António de Almeida Santos were charged with organising the independence of Portugal's overseas territories. By 1975, all the Portuguese African territories were independent and Portugal held its first democratic elections in 50 years. However, the country continued to be governed by a military-civilian provisional administration until the Portuguese legislative election of 1976 that took place on 25 April, exactly one year after the previous election, and two years after the Carnation Revolution. With a new Constitution approved, the country's main aim was economic recovery and strengthening of the nation's democracy. It was won by the Portuguese Socialist Party (PS) and Mário Soares, its leader, became Prime Minister of the 1st Constitutional Government on 23 July. In the following years, Portugal's economic situation obliged the government to pursue International Monetary Fund (IMF)-monitored stabilization programs in 1977–78 and 1983–85.

[ edit ] European integration

The Treaty of Lisbon was signed by the European Union member states on 13 December 2007 in the Jerónimos Monastery , Lisbon

In 1986, Portugal joined the European Economic Community (EEC) that later became the European Union (EU). In the following years Portugal's economy progressed considerably as result of EEC/EU structural and cohesion funds and Portuguese companies' easier access to foreign markets. Portugal's last overseas territory, Macau , was not handed over to the People's Republic of China (PRC) until 1999, under the 1987 joint declaration that set the terms for Macau's handover from Portugal to the PRC. In 2002, the independence of East Timor (Asia) was formally recognized by Portugal, after an incomplete decolonization process that was started in 1975 because of the Carnation Revolution.

On 26 March 1995, Portugal started to implement Schengen Area rules, eliminating border controls with other Schengen members while simultaneously strengthening border controls with non-member states. In 1996 the country was a co-founder of the Community of Portuguese Language Countries (CPLP) headquartered in Lisbon. Expo '98 took place in Portugal and in 1999 it was one of the founding countries of the euro and the Eurozone .

On 5 July 2004, José Manuel Barroso , then Prime Minister of Portugal , was nominated President of the European Commission , the most powerful office in the European Union. On 1 December 2009, the Treaty of Lisbon entered into force, after had been signed by the European Union member states on 13 December 2007 in the Jerónimos Monastery , in Lisbon, enhancing the efficiency and democratic legitimacy of the Union and improving the coherence of its action.

Economic disruption in the wake of the late-2000s financial crisis led the country to negotiate in 2011 with the IMF and the European Union, through the European Financial Stability Mechanism (EFSM) and the European Financial Stability Facility (EFSF), a loan to help the country stabilise its finances.

[ editar ] Geografia

Mount Pico , the highest peak in Portugal, on the volcanic island of Pico in the Azores.
The blue-green lakes of the Lagoa das Sete Cidades within the Sete Cidades Massif on the island of São Miguel , Azores.
Cork oak tree in a wheat field, an iconic image of the Alentejo .
Praia Dona Ana in Lagos , a coastal beach typical of the Algarve .
A view of Serra da Estrela , the highest range on the mainland.
The terraced hills of the wine-making region of the Douro Valley .

The territory of Portugal includes an area in the Iberian Peninsula (referred to as the continent by most Portuguese) and two archipelagos in the Atlantic Ocean: the archipelagos of Madeira and the Azores. It lies between latitudes 32° and 43° N , and longitudes 32° and 6° W .

Mainland Portugal is split by its main river, the Tagus that flows from Spain and disgorges in Tagus Estuary, before escaping into the Atlantic. The northern landscape is mountainous towards the interior with several plateaus indented by river valleys, whereas the south, that includes the Algarve and the Alentejo regions, is characterized by rolling plains.

Portugal's highest peak is the similarly named Mount Pico on the island of Pico in the Azores. This ancient volcano, which measures 2,351 m (7,713 ft) is a highly iconic symbol of the Azores, while the Serra da Estrela on the mainland (the summit being 1,991 m (6,532 ft) above sea level) is an important seasonal attraction for skiers and winter sports enthusiasts.

The archipelagos of Madeira and the Azores are scattered within the Atlantic Ocean: the Azores straddling the Mid-Atlantic Ridge on a tectonic triple junction, and Madeira along a range formed by in-plate hotspot geology (much like the Hawaiian Islands ). Geologically, these islands were formed by volcanic and seismic events, although the last terrestrial volcanic eruption occurred in 1957–58 ( Capelinhos ) and minor earthquakes occur sporadically, usually of low intensity.

Portugal's Exclusive Economic Zone , a sea zone over which the Portuguese have special rights over the exploration and use of marine resources, has 1,727,408 km 2 . This is the 3rd largest Exclusive Economic Zone of the European Union and the 11th largest in the world.

[ editar ] Clima

Portugal is defined as a Mediterranean climate ( Csa in the south and Csb in the north, according to the Koppen-Geiger Climate Classification ), and is one of the warmest European countries: the annual average temperature in mainland Portugal varies from 13 °C (55.4 °F) (in the mountainous interior north) to over 18 °C (64.4 °F) (in the south and on the Guadiana river basin ). The Algarve , separated from the Alentejo region by mountains reaching up to 900 metres in altitude (in Pico da Foia), has a climate similar to that of the southern coastal areas of Spain.

Annual average rainfall in the mainland varies from just over 3,000 mm (118.1 in) in the northern mountains to less than 300 mm (11.8 in) in the area of the Massueime River, near Côa, along the Douro river. Mount Pico is recognized as receiving the largest annual rainfall (over6,250 mm (246.1 in) per year) in Portugal, according to Instituto de Meteorologia (English: Portuguese Meteorological Institute ). [ 22 ]

In some areas, such as the Guadiana basin, annual average temperatures can be as high as 20 °C (68 °F) , but summer temperatures may be over 45 °C (113 °F) (as a study from the Archeological Park in Côa determined). [ 23 ] In the high mountains, such as Peneda-Gerês National Park , a temperate maritime climate permeates ( Cfb , according to Koppen-Geiger). The record high of 47.4 °C (117.3 °F) was recorded in Amareleja (although this is not the hottest spot in summer, according to satellite readings). [ 24 ]

Snowfalls occur regularly in four districts of the country, which are located in the North and Centre mainland: Vila Real, Bragança, Viseu and Guarda. In the winter, temperatures below ?10°C (14°F) are sometimes observed in a few locations, such as: Serra da Estrela, Serra do Gerês and Serra de Montesinho. In these places, snowfalls can happen between October and May. In the South of Portugal, snowfalls are rare, still sometimes occur in the highest places.

The country has around 2500 to 3200 hours of sunshine a year, an average of 4–6 h in winter and 10–12 h in the summer, with higher values in the southeast and lower in the northwest.

Both the archipelagos of the Azores and Madeira have a subtropical climate, although variations between islands exist, making weather predictions very difficult (owing to topography, temperature and humidity). The Madeiran and Azorean archipelagos have a narrower temperature range, with annual average temperatures exceeding 20 °C (68 °F) along the coast (according to the Portuguese Meteorological Institute). Some islands in Azores do have drier months in the summer. Consequently, the island of the Azores have been identified as having a Mediterranean climate (both Csa and Csb types), while some islands (such as Flores or Corvo ) are classified as Maritime Temperate ( Cfb ) or Humid subtropical ( Cfa ), respectively, according to Koppen-Geiger classification. Porto Santo island in Madeira has a semi-arid Steppe climate ( BSh ). The Savage Islands , which are part of the regional territory of Madeira are unique in being classified as a Desert climates ( BWh ) with an annual average rainfall of approximately 150 mm (5.9 in). Ocean surface mean temperatures in the archipelagos vary from between 16 °C (60.8 °F)18 °C (64.4 °F) (in winter) to 23 °C (73.4 °F) - 24 °C (75.2 °F) (in the summer), occasionally reaching 26 °C (78.8 °F) .

In the southern Azores, and still within the Portuguese maritime territory, there is a unique area of tropical climate (as defined by Koppen-Geiger), influenced by Gulf Stream where sea temperatures are over 20 °C (68 °F) , even during the winter (Source AEMET).

[ edit ] Biodiversity

A chameleon from the Algarve region

Owing to humans occupying the territory of Portugal for thousands of years, little is left of the original vegetation. Protected areas of Portugal include one national park ( Portuguese : Parque Nacional ), 12 natural parks ( Portuguese : Parque Natural ), nine natural reserves ( Portuguese : Reserva Natural ), five natural monuments ( Portuguese : Monumento Natural ), and seven protected landscapes ( Portuguese : Paisagem Protegida ), which include the Parque Nacional da Peneda-Gerês , the Parque Natural da Serra da Estrela and the Paul de Arzila . These natural environments are shaped by diverse flora, and include widespread species of pine (especially the Pinus pinaster and Pinus pinea species), the chestnut ( Castanea sativa ), the cork-oak ( Quercus suber ), the holm oak ( Quercus ilex ), the Portuguese oak ( Quercus faginea ), and eucalyptus ( Eucalyptus globulus ). All are prized for their economic value. Laurissilva is a unique type of subtropical rainforest found in few areas of Europe and the world: in the Azores, and in particular on the island of Madeira, there are large forests of endemic Laurasilva forests (the latter protected as a natural heritage preserve).

There are several species of diverse mammalian fauna, including the fox , badger , Iberian lynx , Iberian Wolf , wild goat ( Capra pyrenaica ), wild cat ( Felis silvestris ), hare , weasel , polecat , chameleon , mongoose , civet , brown bear [ citation needed ] (spotted near Rio Minho, close to Peneda-Gerês) and many others. Portugal is an important stopover for migratory birds, in places such as Cape St. Vincent or the Monchique mountain, where thousands of birds cross from Europe to Africa during the autumn or in the spring (return migration). Most of the avian species congregate along the Iberian Peninsula since it is the closest stopover between northern Europe and Africa. Six hundred bird species make their nests in Portugal (either permanently or during the course of migration), and annually there are new registries of nesting species. The archipelagos of the Azores and Madeira are transient stopover for American, European, and African birds, while continental Portugal mostly encounters European and African bird species.

There are over 100 varieties of freshwater fish species, varying from the giant European catfish (in the Tagus International Natural Park) to some small and endemic species that live only in small lakes (along the western lakes for example). Some of these rare and specific species are highly endangered because of habitat loss, pollution and drought. Upwelling along the west coast of Portugal makes the sea extremely rich in nutrients and diverse species of marine fish; the Portuguese marine waters are one of the richest in the world. Marine fish species are more common, and include thousands of species, such as the sardine ( Sardina pilchardus ), tuna and Atlantic mackerel . Bioluminescent species are also well-represented (including species in different colour spectrum and forms), like the glowing plankton that are possible to observe in some beaches.

There are many endemic insect species, most only found in certain parts of Portugal, while other species are more widespread like the stag beetle ( Lucanus cervus ) and the cicada . The Macronesian islands (Azores and Madeira) have many endemic species (like birds, reptiles, bats, insects, snails and slugs) that evolved independent from other regions of Portugal. In Madeira, for example, it is possible to observe more than 250 species of land gastropods .

[ editar ] Divisões administrativas

The Savage Islands are part of Madeira Autonomous Region and constitute the southernmost region of Portugal.

Administratively, Portugal is divided into 308 municipalities ( Portuguese : municípios or concelhos ), which are subdivided into 4260 civil parishes ( Portuguese : freguesia ). Operationally, the municipality and civil parish, along with the national government, are the only legally identifiable local administrative units identified by the government of Portugal (for example, cities, towns or villages have no standing in law, although may be used as catchment for the defining services). For statistical purposes the Portuguese government also identifies NUTS , inter-municipal communities and informally, the district system, used until European integration (and being phased-out by the national government). Continental Portugal is agglomerated into 18 districts, while the archipelagos of the Azores and Madeira are governed as autonomous regions ; the largest units, established since 1976, are either mainland Portugal ( Portuguese : Portugal Continental ) and the autonomous regions of Portugal (Azores and Madeira).

The 18 districts of mainland Portugal are: Aveiro , Beja , Braga , Bragança , Castelo Branco , Coimbra , Évora , Faro , Guarda , Leiria , Lisbon , Portalegre , Porto , Santarém , Setúbal , Viana do Castelo , Vila Real and Viseu – each district takes the name of the district capital.

Within the European Union NUTS ( Nomenclature of Territorial Units for Statistics ) system, Portugal is divided into seven regions: the Azores , Alentejo , Algarve , Centro , Lisboa , Madeira and Norte , and with the exception of the Azores and Madeira, these NUTS areas are subdivided into 28 subregions.

Districts [ 25 ]
District Área População District Área População
1 Lisbon 2,761 km 2 2,244,984 PortugalNumbered.png 10 Guarda 5,518 km 2 160,931
2 Leiria 3,517 km 2 (1,358 sq mi) 470,765 11 Coimbra 3,947 km 2 429,714
3 Santarém 6,747 km 2 (2,605 sq mi) 454,456 12 Aveiro 2,808 km 2 714,351
4 Setúbal 5,064 km 2 (1,955 sq mi) 849,842 13 Viseu 5,007 km 2 378,166
5 Beja 10,225 km 2 (3,948 sq mi) 152,706 14 Bragança 6,608 km 2 136,459
6 Faro 4,960 km 2 (1,915 sq mi) 450,484 15 Vila Real 4,328 km 2 207,184
7 Évora 7,393 km 2 167,434 16 Porto 2,395 km 2 1,816,045
8 Portalegre 6,065 km 2 118,952 17 Braga 2,673 km 2 848,444
9 Castelo Branco 6,675 km 2 195,949 18 Viana do Castelo 2,255 km 2 244,947
Autonomous Regions
Autonomous Region Área População Demonym
Azores
2,333 km 2
246,102
Azorean
Madeira
801 km 2
267,938
Madeiran

[ editar ] Política

Portugal has been a democratic republic since the ratification of the Constitution of 1976 , with Lisbon , the nation's largest city, as its capital. The constitution grants the division, or separation, of powers among legislative, executive, and judicial branches. The four main institutions as described in this constitution are the President of the Republic , the Parliament , known as the Assembleia da República (English: Assembly of the Republic ), the Government , headed by a Prime Minister , and the courts.

The President, who is elected to a five-year term, has a supervisory non-executive role: the current President is Aníbal Cavaco Silva . The Parliament is a chamber composed of 230 deputies elected for a four-year term. The government, whose head is the Prime Minister (currently Pedro Passos Coelho ), chooses a Council of Ministers , that comprises the Ministers and State Secretaries. The courts are organized into several levels: judicial, administrative, and fiscal branches. The Supreme Courts are institutions of last resort/appeal. A thirteen-member Constitutional Court oversees the constitutionality of the laws.

Portugal operates a multi-party system of competitive legislatures/local administrative governments at the national-, regional- and local-levels. The Legislative Assembly , Regional Assemblies and local municipalities and/or parishes, are dominated by two political parties, the Socialist Party and the Social Democratic Party , in addition to the Unitarian Democratic Coalition ( Portuguese Communist Party plus Ecologist Party "The Greens" ), the Left Bloc and the Democratic and Social Centre – People's Party , which garner between 5 and 15% of the vote regularly.

[ edit ] Executive branch

The President , elected to a five-year term by direct, universal suffrage , is also Commander-in-Chief of the Armed Forces. Presidential powers include the appointment of the Prime Minister and Council of Ministers (where the President is obligated by the results from Legislative Elections); dismissing the Prime Minister; dissolving the Assembly (to call early elections); vetoing legislation (which may be overridden by the Assembly); and declaring a State of War or siege.

The President is advised on issues of importance by the Council of State , which is composed of six senior civilian officers, any former Presidents elected under the 1976 Constitution, five-members chosen by the Assembly, and five selected by the president.

The Government is headed by the presidentially-appointed Prime Minister, who names a Council of Ministers to act as the government and cabinet. Each government is required to define the broad outline of its policies in a program, and present it to the Assembly for a mandatory period of debate. The failure of the Assembly to reject the program by a majority of deputies confirms the government in office.

[ edit ] Legislative branch

The Assembly of the Republic is a unicameral body composed of up to 230 deputies. Elected by universal suffrage according to a system of proportional representation, deputies serve four-year terms of office, unless the President dissolves the Assembly and calls for new elections.

[ edit ] Law and criminal justice

The Portuguese legal system is part of the civil law legal system, also called the continental family legal system. Until the end of the 19th century, French law was the main influence. Since then, the major influence has been German law . The main laws include the Constitution (1976, as amended), the Civil Code (1966, as amended) and the Penal Code (1982, as amended). Other relevant laws are the Commercial Code (1888, as amended) and the Civil Procedure Code (1961, as amended).

Portuguese law applied in the former colonies and territories and continues to be the major influence for those countries. Portugal's main police organizations are the Guarda Nacional Republicana – GNR (National Republican Guard), a gendarmerie ; the Polícia de Segurança Pública – PSP (Public Security Police), a civilian police force who work in urban areas; and the Polícia Judiciária – PJ (Judicial Police), a highly specialized criminal investigation police that is overseen by the Public Ministry .

Portugal is one of the few countries in Europe that legallized same-sex marriage (dark blue).

Portugal was one of the first countries in the world to abolish the death penalty. Maximum jail sentences are limited to 25 years.

Portugal has arguably the most liberal laws concerning possession of illicit drugs in the Western world . In 2001 Portugal decriminalized possession of effectively all drugs that are still illegal in other developed nations including, but not limited to, marijuana , cocaine , heroin, and LSD . While possession is legal, trafficking and possession of more than "10 days worth of personal use" are still punishable by jail time and fines. People caught with small amounts of any drug are given the choice to go to a rehab facility, and may refuse treatment without consequences. Despite criticism from other European nations, who stated Portugal's drug consumption would tremendously increase, overall drug use rose only slightly, whilst use among teenagers dropped, along with the number of HIV infection cases, which had dropped 50% by 2009. [ 26 ] [ 27 ]

On 31 May 2010, Portugal became the sixth country in Europe and the eighth country in the world to legally recognize same-sex marriage on the national level. The law came into force on 5 June 2010. [ 28 ]

[ edit ] Foreign relations

The disputed territory of Olivença

A member state of the United Nations since 1955, Portugal is also a founding member of NATO (1949), OECD (1961) and EFTA (1960); it left the latter in 1986 to join the European Economic Community , that would become the European Union in 1993. In 1996 it co-founded the Community of Portuguese Language Countries (CPLP), which seeks to foster closer economic and cultural ties between the world's Lusophone nations. In addition, Portugal is a full member of the Latin Union (1983) and the Organization of Ibero-American States (1949). It has a friendship alliance and dual citizenship treaty with its former colony, Brazil. Portugal and England (subsequently, the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland) share the world's oldest active military accord through their Anglo-Portuguese Alliance ( Treaty of Windsor ), which was signed in 1373.

The only international dispute concerns the municipality of Olivença (Olivenza). Under Portuguese sovereignty since 1297, the municipality of Olivenza was ceded to Spain under the Treaty of Badajoz in 1801, after the War of the Oranges . Portugal claimed it back in 1815 under the Treaty of Vienna . However, since the 19th century, it has been continuously and peacefully ruled by Spain which considers the territory not only de facto but also de jure as an integral part of Spain.

[ editar ] Militar

The NRP Corte Real , ( Vasco da Gama class frigate ) of the Portuguese Navy .

The armed forces have three branches: Navy , Army and Air Force . They serve primarily as a self-defense force whose mission is to protect the territorial integrity of the country and providing humanitarian assistance and security at home and abroad. As of 2008, the three branches numbered 39,000 active personnel including 6,500 women. Portuguese military expenditure in 2009 was $5.2 billion, representing 2.1 percent of GDP. Military conscription was abolished in 2004. The minimum age for voluntary recruitment is 18 years.

The Army (21,000 personnel) comprises three brigades and other small units. An infantry brigade (mainly equipped with Pandur II APC ), a mechanized brigade (mainly equipped with Leopard 2 A6 tanks and M113 APC) and a Rapid Reaction Brigade (consisting of paratroopers, commandos and rangers). The Navy (10,700 personnel, of which 1,580 are marines ) has five frigates, two submarines, and 28 patrol and auxiliary vessels. The Air Force (7,500 personnell) has the Lockheed F-16 Fighting Falcon as the main combat aircraft.

In addition to the three branches of the armed forces, there is the Republican National Guard , a security force subject to military law and organization ( gendarmerie ) comprising 25,000 personnel. This force is under the authority of both the Defense and the Interior Ministry. It has provided detachments for participation in international operations in Iraq and East Timor.

The United States maintains a military presence with 770 troops in the Lajes Air Base at Terceira Island , in the Azores. The Allied Joint Force Command Lisbon (JFC Lisbon) – one of the three main subdivisions of NATO 's Allied Command Operations – it is based in Oeiras , near Lisbon.

In the 20th century, Portugal engaged in two major military interventions: World War I and the Portuguese Colonial War (1961–1974). After the end of the Portuguese Empire in 1975, the Portuguese Armed Forces have participated in peacekeeping missions in East Timor, Bosnia, Kosovo, Afghanistan, Somalia, Iraq ( Nasiriyah ) and Lebanon. Portugal also conducted several independent unilateral military operations abroad, as were the cases of the interventions of the Portuguese Armed Forces in Angola in 1992 and in Guinea-Bissau in 1998 with the main objectives of protecting and withdrawing of Portuguese and foreign citizens threatened by local civil conflits.

[ editar ] Economia

The municipality of Maia , in Porto Metropolitan Area , is among the most industrialized places in Portugal. Sonae , Portugal's largest private employer, was founded in Maia and has its headquarters there.

Since the Carnation Revolution (1974) which culminated with the end of one of its most notable phases of economic expansion (that started in the 1960s), [ 29 ] there has been a significant change in annual economic growth. After the turmoil of the 1974 revolution and the PREC period, Portugal has been trying to adapt itself to a changing modern global economy . Since the 1990s, Portugal's economic development model has been slowly changing from one based on public consumption to one focused on exports, private investment , and development of the high-tech sector. Business services have overtaken more traditional industries such as textiles, clothing, footwear, cork (of which Portugal is the world's leading producer), [ 30 ] wood products and beverages. [ 31 ]

[ edit ] Sectors

Portugal is part of a monetary union, the Eurozone , and of the EU single market .

Agriculture in Portugal is based on small to medium-sized family-owned dispersed units. However, the sector also includes larger scale intensive farming export-oriented agrobusinesses backed by companies (like Grupo RAR 's Vitacress , Sovena , Lactogal , Vale da Rosa , Companhia das Lezírias and Valouro ). The country produces a wide variety of crops and livestock products, including green vegetables , rice , corn , barley , olives , oilseeds , cherries , bilberry , table grapes , dairy products , poultry and beef . Forestry has also played an important economic role among the rural communities and industry (namely paper industry that includes Portucel Soporcel Group , engineered wood that includes Sonae Indústria , and furniture that includes several manufacturing plants in and around Paços de Ferreira , the core of Portugal's major industrial operations of IKEA ). In 2001, the gross agricultural product accounted for 4% of the national GDP.

Traditionally a sea-power, Portugal has had a strong tradition in the fishing sector and is one of the countries with the highest fish consumption per capita. [ 32 ] The main landing sites in Portugal (including Azores and Madeira), according to total landings in weight by year, are the harbours of Matosinhos , Peniche , Olhão , Sesimbra , Figueira da Foz , Sines , Portimão and Madeira . Portuguese processed fish products are exported through several companies under a number of different brands like Conservas Ramirez , the World's oldest canned fish producer still in operation, as well as Combate, Comur, General, Líder, Maná, Murtosa, Pescador, Pitéu, Tenório, Torreira, Vasco da Gama, etc.

The Parque das Nações is a services and residential hub in Lisbon , built in the area which hosted the 1998 Lisbon World Exposition .

Industry is diversified, ranging from automobile ( Volkswagen Autoeuropa , Peugeot Citroen ), aerospace ( Embraer ), electronics and textiles , to food , chemicals , cement and wood pulp .

Travel and tourism continues to become extremely important for Portugal, with visitor numbers forecast to increase significantly over the next years. However, there is increasing competition from Eastern European destinations such as Croatia who offer similar attractions, which are often cheaper. Consequently, the country is almost obligated to focus on its niche attractions such as health, nature and rural tourism in order to stay ahead of its competitors. [ 33 ]

The banking and insurance sectors performed well until the late-2000s financial crisis , partly reflecting a rapid deepening of the market in Portugal. While sensitive to various types of market and underwriting risks , both the life and non-life sectors, overall, are estimated to be able to withstand a number of severe shocks, even though the impact on individual insurers varies widely. [ 34 ]

A shopping centre in Porto Metropolitan Area ; the abundance of shopping centres in Portugal is sometimes criticized due to the negative impact it has on traditional commerce.

Major State-owned companies include Águas de Portugal (water), ANA (airports), Caixa Geral de Depósitos (banking), Comboios de Portugal (railways), Companhia das Lezírias (agriculture), CTT (postal services), RTP (media) and TAP Portugal (airline). Some of the former are managed by state-run holding company Parpública , which is a shareholder of several companies, both public and private. Companies listed on Euronext Lisbon stock exchange like EDP , Cimpor , Corticeira Amorim , Galp , Jerónimo Martins , Millennium bcp , Portucel Soporcel , Portugal Telecom and Sonae , are among the largest corporations of Portugal by number of employees, net income or international market share . The Euronext Lisbon is the major stock exchange of Portugal and is part of the NYSE Euronext , the first global stock exchange. The PSI-20 is Portugal's most selective and widely known stock index . Volkswagen Group 's AutoEuropa motor vehicle assembly plant in Palmela is among the largest foreign direct investment projects in Portugal. Portugal's central bank is the Banco de Portugal , which is an integral part of the European System of Central Banks .

Most industry, business and finance are concentrated in Lisbon and Porto metropolitan areas. The districts of Aveiro , Braga , Coimbra , and Leiria are the biggest economic centres outside those two main metropolitan areas. Modern non-traditional technology-based industries like aerospace , biotechnology , and software, have been developed in several locations across the country. Alverca , Covilhã , [ 35 ] Évora , [ 36 ] and Ponte de Sor are the main centres of Portuguese aerospace industry , which is led by Brazil-based company Embraer .

[ edit ] Performance

Oeiras Municipality , in Lisbon Metropolitan Area , is home of many of the headquarters of multinational companies operating in Portugal

The Global Competitiveness Report for 2005, published by the World Economic Forum , placed Portugal's competitiveness in the 22nd position, but the 2008–2009 edition placed Portugal in the 43rd position out of 134 countries and territories. [ 37 ] Research about quality of life by the Economist Intelligence Unit 's quality of life survey placed Portugal as the country with the 19th-best quality of life in the world for 2005, ahead of other economically and technologically advanced countries like France, Germany, the United Kingdom and South Korea, but 9 places behind its only neighbour, Spain. [ 38 ] This is despite the fact that Portugal remains the country with the lowest per capita GDP in Western Europe. [ 39 ]

The poor performance of the Portuguese economy was explored in April 2007 by The Economist , which described Portugal as "a new sick man of Europe ". [ 40 ] From 2002 to 2007, the unemployment rate increased by 65% (270,500 unemployed citizens in 2002, 448,600 unemployed citizens in 2007). [ 41 ] By early December 2009, unemployment had reached 10.2% – a 23-year record high. In December 2009, ratings agency Standard and Poor's lowered its long-term credit assessment of Portugal to "negative" from "stable," voicing pessimism on the country's structural weaknesses in the economy and weak competitiveness that would hamper growth and the capacity to strengthen its public finances and reduce debt . [ 42 ] In July 2011, ratings agency Moody's downgraded its long-term credit assessment of Portugal after warning of deteriorating risk of default in March 2011. [ 43 ]

Corruption has become an issue of major political and economic significance for the country. Some cases are well known and were widely reported in the media, such as the affairs in several municipalities involving local town hall officials and businesspersons, as well as a number of politicians with wider responsibilities and power. [ 44 ] [ 45 ] Nevertheless the Transparency International report for 2010 places Portugal in 31st position in terms of perceived corruption, just below Israel and Spain, and 34 positions above Italy. [ 46 ]

A report published in January 2011 by the Diário de Notícias , a leading Portuguese newspaper, demonstrated that in the period between the Carnation Revolution in 1974 and 2010, the democratic Portuguese Republic governments encouraged over expenditure and investment bubbles through unclear public-private partnerships. This funded numerous ineffective and unnecessary external consultancy and advising committees and firms, allowed considerable slippage in state-managed public works , inflated top management and head officers' bonuses and wages, causing a persistent and lasting recruitment policy that boosted the number of redundant public servants. The economy was also damaged by risky credit , public debt creation and mismanaged European structural and cohesion funds for almost four decades. Apparently, the Prime Minister Sócrates 's cabinet was not able to forecast or prevent any of this when symptoms first appeared in 2005, and in 2011 the country was on the verge of bankruptcy. [ 47 ]

If analysed under a wider time span, the convergence of the Portuguese economy to EU levels has been impressive, especially from 1986 to the early 2000s. [ 48 ] [ 49 ] According to Barry (2003), "what appears to have been crucial in the Portuguese case, relative to Spain at least, is the degree of labour-market flexibility that the economy exhibits. (...) Thus Portuguese convergence has been impressive, even though, consistent with its relatively low human-capital stock, the economy has specialised in low-tech production." [ 49 ]

On April 6, 2011 Prime Minister José Sócrates announced on national television that the country would request financial assistance from the IMF and the European Financial Stability Facility , like Greece and the Republic of Ireland had done before. It was the third time that external financial aid was requested to the IMF – the first was in the late 1970s following the Carnation Revolution.

[ edit ] Labour market

Although a developed country and a high income country , Portugal has the lowest GDP per capita in Western Europe and its population has one of the lowest incomes per head among member states of the European Union . According to Eurostat , in 2009, Portugal's GPD per capita stood at 80% of the EU27 average, [ 50 ] the 10th lowest in the Union.

The average wage in Portugal is 1,039 € per month (net), [ 51 ] and the minimum wage , which is regulated by law, is €485 per month (although paid in 14 installments, which means that on average the minimum wage is 565 euros). Officially, in 2008 the unemployment rate decreased to 7.3% in the second quarter of 2008. [ 52 ] However, it immediately rose again to higher rates. Influenced by events worldwide, by December 2009, unemployment had surpassed the 10% mark nationwide and, by 2010, it was about 11%.

[ edit ] Tourism

The Pena National Palace in Sintra is a UNESCO World Heritage Site and one of Portugal's most visited landmarks

Portugal is among the 20 most visited countries in the world, receiving an average of 13 million foreign tourists each year. [ 53 ] Tourism is playing an increasingly important role in Portugal's economy, contributing to about 5% of its Gross Domestic Product (GDP). [ citation needed ]

Tourist hotspots in Portugal are Lisbon, the Algarve and Madeira, but the Portuguese government continues to promote and develop new tourist destinations, such as the Douro Valley , the island of Porto Santo , and Alentejo . Lisbon is, after Barcelona , the European city which attracts the most tourists (with seven million tourists occupying the city's hotels in 2006, a number that grew 11.8% compared to previous year). [ 54 ] Lisbon in recent years surpassed the Algarve as the leading tourist region in Portugal. Porto and Northern Portugal, especially the urban areas north of Douro River valley, was the tourist destination which grew most (11.9%) in 2006, surpassing Madeira (in 2010), as the third most visited destination. [ citation needed ]

Most tourists in Portugal are British -, Spanish - or German -origin visitors, travel by low cost airliners , and not only seek sun and beaches, but increasingly search for cultural, gastronomic, environmental or nautical experiences (or travel for reasons of business). [ citation needed ]

[ edit ] Tourist regions

The main tourist regions can be broken-down into (by order of importance): the Greater Lisbon ( Portuguese : Lisboa ), the Algarve , Greater Porto and Northern Portugal ( Portuguese : Porto and Norte ), the Portuguese Islands ( Portuguese : Ilhas Portuguesas : Madeira and Azores), and Alentejo . Other tourist regions include Douro Sul , Templários , Dão-Lafões , Costa do Sol , Costa Azul , Planície Dourada , that are unknown to many tourists or visitors. [ citation needed ]

Most of these regions are grouped in tourism reference areas, which continue to be in a state of reorganization and evolution, some based on the traditional regions of Portugal: the Costa Verde ( Green Coast ); Costa da Prata ( Silver Coast) ); Costa de Lisboa ( Lisbon Coast ); Montanhas ( Mountains ); Planícies ( Plains ); Algarve ; and the islands of the archipelagos of Madeira and the Azores . [ citation needed ]

[ editar ] Transporte

The Orient Station ( Gare do Oriente ), Lisbon .

By the early 1970s Portugal's fast economic growth with increasing consumption and purchase of new automobiles set the priority for improvements in transportation. Again in the 1990s, after joining the European Economic Community , the country built many new motorways. Today, the country has a 68,732 km (42,708 mi) road network, of which almost 3,000 km (1,864 mi) are part of system of 44 motorways. Opened in 1944, the first motorway (which linked Lisbon to the National Stadium) was an innovative project that made Portugal among one of the first countries in the world to establish a motorway (this roadway eventually became the Lisbon-Cascais highway, or A5). But, although a few other tracts were created (around 1960 and 1970), it was only after the beginning of the 1980s that large-scale motorway construction was implemented. In 1972, Brisa , the highway concessionaire, was founded to handle the management of many of the regions motorways.

Vasco da Gama Bridge , over the Tagus River , is the longest bridge in Europe. [ 55 ] [ 56 ]

Vasco da Gama bridge is the longest bridge in Europe. [ 57 ] [ 58 ]

Continental Portugal 's 89,015 km 2 (34,369 sq mi) territory is serviced by three international airports located near the principal cities of Lisbon , Porto and Faro . Lisbon's geographical position makes it a stopover for many foreign airlines at several airports within the country. The primary flag-carrier is TAP Portugal , although many other domestic airlines provide services within and without the country. The government decided to build a new airport outside Lisbon, in Alcochete , to replace Lisbon Portela Airport . Currently, the most important airports are in Lisbon , Faro , Porto , Funchal (Madeira), and Ponta Delgada (Azores), managed by the national airport authority group ANA – Aeroportos de Portugal .

A national railway system that extends throughout the continent and into Spain, is supported and administered by Comboios de Portugal . Rail transport of passengers and goods is derived using the 2,791 km (1,734 mi) of railway lines currently in service, of which 1,430 km (889 mi) are electrified and about 900 km (559 mi) allow train speeds greater than 120 km/h (75 mph). The railway network is managed by the REFER while the transport of passengers and goods are the responsibility of Caminhos de Ferro Portugueses (CP), both public companies. In 2006 the CP carried 133 million passengers and 9,750,000 t (9,600,000 long tons ; 10,700,000 short tons ) of goods.

The major seaports are located in Leixões , Aveiro , Figueira da Foz , Lisbon , Setúbal , Sines and Faro .

The two largest metropolitan areas have subway systems: Lisbon Metro and Metro Sul do Tejo in the Lisbon Metropolitan Area and Porto Metro in the Porto Metropolitan Area , each with more than 35 km (22 mi) of lines. In Portugal, Lisbon tram services have been supplied by the Companhia de Carris de Ferro de Lisboa ( Carris ), for over a century. In Porto , a tram network , of which only a tourist line on the shores of the Douro remain, began construction on 12 September 1895 (a first for the Iberian Peninsula ). All major cities and towns have their own local urban transport network, as well as taxi services.

[ edit ] Science and technology

The headquarters ( rectorate ) of the University of Porto (UP) – UP is the largest Portuguese university by both number of students and research output.

Scientific and technological research activities in Portugal are mainly conducted within a network of R&D units belonging to public universities and state-managed autonomous research institutions like the INETI – Instituto Nacional de Engenharia, Tecnologia e Inovação and the INRB – Instituto Nacional dos Recursos Biológicos . The funding and management of this research system is mainly conducted under the authority of the Ministry of Science, Technology and Higher Education (MCTES) itself and the MCTES's Fundação para a Ciência e Tecnologia (FCT). The largest R&D units of the public universities by volume of research grants and peer-reviewed publications, include biosciences research institutions like the Instituto de Medicina Molecular , the Centre for Neuroscience and Cell Biology , the IPATIMUP , the Instituto de Biologia Molecular e Celular and the Abel Salazar Biomedical Sciences Institute .

António Egas Moniz was a Portuguese neurologist awarded with the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1949.

Among the largest non-state-run research institutions in Portugal are the Instituto Gulbenkian de Ciência and the Champalimaud Foundation , which yearly awards one of the highest monetary prizes of any science prize in the world. A number of both national and multinational high-tech and industrial companies, are also responsible for research and development projects. One of the oldest learned societies of Portugal is the Sciences Academy of Lisbon , founded in 1779.

Iberian bilateral state-supported research efforts include the International Iberian Nanotechnology Laboratory and the Ibercivis distributed computing platform, which are joint research programmes of both Portugal and Spain. Portugal is a member of several pan-European scientific organizations. These include the European Space Agency (ESA), the European Laboratory for Particle Physics (CERN), ITER , and the European Southern Observatory (ESO).

Portugal has the largest aquarium in Europe, the Lisbon Oceanarium , and the Portuguese have several other notable organizations focused on science-related exhibits and divulgation, like the state agency Ciência Viva , a programme of the Portuguese Ministry of Science and Technology to the promotion of a scientific and technological culture among the Portuguese population, [ 59 ] the Science Museum of the University of Coimbra , the National Museum of Natural History at the University of Lisbon, and the Visionarium .

With the emergence and growth of several science parks throughout the world that helped create many thousands of scientific, technological and knowledge-based businesses, Portugal started to develop several [ 60 ] science parks across the country. These include the Taguspark (in Oeiras ), the Coimbra iParque (in Coimbra ), the biocant (in Cantanhede ), the Madeira Tecnopolo [ 61 ] (in Funchal ), Sines Tecnopolo [ 62 ] (in Sines ), Tecmaia [ 63 ] (in Maia ) and Parkurbis [ 64 ] (in Covilhã ). Companies locate in the Portuguese science parks to take advantage of a variety of services ranging from financial and legal advice through to marketing and technological support.

Egas Moniz , a Portuguese physician who developed the cerebral angiography and leucotomy , received in 1949 the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine – he is the first Portuguese recipient of a Nobel Prize and the only in the sciences.

The European Innovation Scoreboard 2011, placed Portugal-based innovation in the 15th position, with an impressive increase in innovation expenditure and output. [ 65 ]

[ edit ] Energy

Alqueva Dam , in the Alentejo ; the Alqueva project, an irrigation and hydroelectric power generation system, created the largest artificial lake in Western Europe.

Portugal has considerable resources of wind and river power, the two most cost-effective renewable sources. Since the 2000s, there has been a trend towards the development of a renewable resource industry and reduction of both consumption and use of fossil fuel resources. In 2006, the world's largest solar power plant at that date began operating near Moura , in the south, while the world's first commercial wave power farm opened in the Norte region (October 2006). By the end of 2006, 66% of the country's electrical production was from coal and fuel power plants, while 29% were derived from hydroelectric dams, and 6% by wind energy . [ 66 ]

Serpa solar power plant in the Alentejo . Around 70% of Portugal's energy production comes from renewable sources.

In 2008, renewable energy resource methods began to produce 43% of the nation's consumption of electricity, even as hydroelectric production decreased due to severe droughts. [ 67 ] As of June 2010, electricity exports have outnumbered imports; 70% of the national production of energy has transitioned to renewable sources. [ 68 ]

Portugal's national energy transmission company, Redes Energéticas Nacionais (REN), uses sophisticated modeling to predict weather, especially wind patterns, and computer programs to calculate energy from the various renewable-energy plants. Before the solar/wind revolution, Portugal had generated electricity from hydropower plants on its rivers for decades. But new programs combine wind and water: wind-driven turbines pump water uphill at night, the most blustery period; then the water flows downhill by day, generating electricity, when consumer demand is highest. Portugal's distribution system is also now a two-way street. Instead of just delivering electricity, it draws electricity from even the smallest generators, like rooftop solar panels. The government aggressively encouraged such contributions by setting a premium price for those who buy rooftop-generated solar electricity.

[ editar ] Demografia

Population density map of Portugal
Lisbon is the capital and largest city in Portugal.
A partial view of Porto , the second largest city in Portugal.

The Instituto Nacional de Estatística ( Portuguese : National Institute of Statistics ) estimates that, according to the 2011 census, the population was 10,555,853 (of which 52% was female, 48% was male). This population has been relatively homogeneous for most of its history: a single religion (Catholicism) and a single language have contributed to this ethnic and national unity, namely after the expulsion of the Moors , Moriscos and Sephardi Jews . [ 69 ]

Native Portuguese are an Iberian ethnic group, whose ancestry is very similar to other Western and Southern Europeans and Mediterranean peoples , in particular Spaniards, with whom they share a common ancestry, history and cultural proximity.

The most important demographic influence in the modern Portuguese seems to be the oldest one; current interpretation of Y-chromosome and mtDNA data suggests that the Portuguese have their origin in Paleolithic peoples that began arriving to the European continent around 45,000 years ago. [ citation needed ] All subsequent migrations did leave an impact, genetically and culturally, but the main population source of the Portuguese is still Paleolithic. [ citation needed ]

[ edit ] Urbanization

There are two Greater Metropolitan Areas ( GAMs ): Lisbon and Porto . [ 70 ]

ed
Classificar City name População Metro
Área
Population [ 71 ] Subregion População
1 Lisbon 564,657 Lisbon 2,661,850 Grande Lisboa 2,003,580
2 Porto 263,131 Porto 1,679,854 Grande Porto 1,572,176
3 Vila Nova de Gaia 178,255 Porto - Grande Porto -
4 Amadora 175,872 Lisbon - Grande Lisboa -
5 Braga 109,460 Minho 797,909 Cávado 404,681
6 Almada 101,500 Lisbon - Península de Setúbal -
7 Coimbra 101,069 Coimbra 435,900 Baixo Mondego 340,342
8 Funchal 100,526 n/a [ 72 ] n / a Madeira 245,806
9 Setúbal 89,303 Lisbon - Península de Setúbal 714,589
10 Agualva-Cacém 81,845 Lisbon - Grande Lisboa -

[ edit ] Immigration

Portugal's colonial history has long since been a cornerstone of its national identity, as has its geographic position at the southwestern corner of Europe, looking out into the Atlantic Ocean. It was the last western colonial European powers to give up its overseas territories (among them Angola and Mozambique in 1975), turning over the administration of Macau to the People's Republic of China at the end of 1999. Consequently, it has both influenced and been influenced by cultures from former colonies or dependencies, resulting in immigration from these former territories for both economic and/or personal reasons. Portugal, long a country of emigration (the vast majority of Brazilians have some Portuguese ancestry), [ 73 ] has now become a country of net immigration, [ 74 ] and not just from the last Indian (Portuguese until 1961), African (Portuguese until 1975), and Far East Asian (Portuguese until 1999) overseas territories. An estimated 800,000 Portuguese returned to Portugal as the country's African possessions gained independence in 1975. [ 73 ] By 2007, Portugal had 10,617,575 inhabitants of whom about 332,137 were legal immigrants . [ 1 ]

Since the 1990s, along with a boom in construction , several new waves of Ukrainian , Brazilian, people from the former Portuguese colonies in Africa and other Africans have settled in the country. Romanians, Moldovans and Chinese have also chosen Portugal as destination. Portugal's Romani population, estimated at about 40,000, [ 75 ] offers another element of ethnic diversity. Most Romanis congregate with similar ethnic groups in the southern parts of the country and sell clothing and handicrafts in rural markets.

In addition, a number of EU citizens , mostly from the United Kingdom, northern European or Nordic countries, have become permanent residents in the country (with the British community being mostly composed of retired pensioners and choosing to live in the Algarve and Madeira). [ 76 ]

[ editar ] Religião

The Sanctuary of Our Lady of Fátima , the largest Marian shrine.

Today, 84.5% of the Portuguese population are Roman Catholic while 2.2% follow other Christian faiths. [ 77 ] Some 9% of the population are self-declared as non-religious (Zuckerman 2005). In addition, the country has small Protestant, Mormon , Muslim , Hindu , Sikh , Christian Orthodox , Jehovah's Witnesses , Baha'i , Buddhist and Jewish communities.

Many Portuguese holidays, festivals and traditions have a Christian origin or connotation. Although relations between the Portuguese state and the Roman Catholic Church were generally amiable and stable since the earliest years of the Portuguese nation, their relative power fluctuated. In the 13th and 14th centuries , the church enjoyed both riches and power stemming from its role in the reconquest , its close identification with early Portuguese nationalism and the foundation of the Portuguese educational system, including the first university . The growth of the Portuguese overseas empire made its missionaries important agents of colonization , with important roles in the education and evangelization of people from all the inhabited continents. The growth of liberal and nascent republican movements during the eras leading to the formation of the First Portuguese Republic (1910–26) changed the role and importance of organized religion.

Portugal is a secular state : church and state were formally separated during the Portuguese First Republic, and later reiterated in the 1976 Portuguese Constitution . Other than the Constitution, the two most important documents relating to religious freedom in Portugal are: the 1940 Concordata (later amended in 1971) between Portugal and the Holy See , and the 2001 Religious Freedom Act.

[ edit ] Languages

Map of the Lusosphere

Portuguese is the official language of Portugal. Portuguese is a Romance language that originated in what is now Galicia (Spain) and Northern Portugal , from the Galician-Portuguese language. It is derived from the Latin spoken by the romanized Pre-Roman peoples of the Iberian Peninsula around 2000 years ago. In the 15th and 16th centuries, it spread worldwide as Portugal established a colonial and commercial empire (1415–1999).

As a result, nowadays the Portuguese language is also official and spoken in Brazil, Angola, Mozambique, Cape Verde, São Tomé and Príncipe, Guinea-Bissau, and East Timor. These countries, plus Macau Special Administrative Region (People's Republic of China), make up the Lusosphere , term derived from the ancient Roman province of Lusitania , which currently matches the Portuguese territory south of the Douro river. Mirandese is also recognized as a co-official regional language in some municipalities of northeastern Portugal. It retains fewer than 5,000 speakers in Portugal (a number that can be up to 12,000 if counting second language speakers). [ citation needed ]

[ editar ] Educação

Headquarters of the New University of Lisbon .

The educational system is divided into preschool (for those under age 6), basic education (9 years, in three stages, compulsory), secondary education (3 years, till the 12th grade), and higher education (university and polytechnic ).

Total adult literacy rate is 99%. Portuguese primary school enrollments are close to 100%. According to the OECD 's Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) 2009, the average Portuguese 15-years old student, when rated in terms of reading literacy, mathematics and science knowledge, is placed at the same level as those students from the United States, Sweden, Germany, Ireland, France, Denmark, United Kingdom, Hungary and Taipei , with 489 points (493 is the average). [ 78 ] Over 35% of college-age citizens (20 years old) attend one of the country's higher education institutions [ 79 ] (compared with 50% in the United States and 35% in the OECD countries). In addition to being a key destination for international students , Portugal is also among the top places of origin for international students. All higher education students, both domestic and international, totaled 380,937 in 2005.

The tower of the University of Coimbra , Coimbra – the university is one of the oldest in continuous operation in the world .

Portuguese universities have existed since 1290. The oldest Portuguese university was first established in Lisbon before moving to Coimbra . Historically, within the scope of the Portuguese Empire, the Portuguese founded in 1792 the oldest engineering school of Latin America (the Real Academia de Artilharia, Fortificação e Desenho ), as well as the oldest medical college of Asia (the Escola Médico-Cirúrgica de Goa ) in 1842. The largest university in Portugal is the University of Porto . Universities are usually organized into faculties . Institutes and schools are also common designations for autonomous subdivisions of Portuguese higher education institutions . The Bologna process has been adopted since 2006 by Portuguese universities and polytechnical institutes. Higher education in state-run educational establishments is provided on a competitive basis, a system of numerus clausus is enforced through a national database on student admissions. However, every higher education institution offers also a number of additional vacant places through other extraordinary admission processes for sportsmen, mature applicants (over 23 years old), international students , foreign students from the Lusosphere , degree owners from other institutions, students from other institutions ( academic transfer ), former students (readmission), and course change, which are subject to specific standards and regulations set by each institution or course department.

Portugal has entered into cooperation agreements with MIT (US) and other North American institutions to further develop and increase the effectiveness of Portuguese higher education and research.

[ edit ] Health

Hospital of Santa Maria, Lisbon .

According to the latest Human Development Report , the average Life Expectancy in 2010 was 79.1 years.

The Portuguese health system is characterized by three coexisting systems: the National Health Service (NHS), special social health insurance schemes for certain professions (health subsystems) and voluntary private health insurance. The NHS provides universal coverage. In addition, about 25% of the population is covered by the health subsystems, 10% by private insurance schemes and another 7% by mutual funds.

The Ministry of Health is responsible for developing health policy as well as managing the NHS. Five regional health administrations are in charge of implementing the national health policy objectives, developing guidelines and protocols and supervising health care delivery. Decentralization efforts have aimed at shifting financial and management responsibility to the regional level. In practice, however, the autonomy of regional health administrations over budget setting and spending has been limited to primary care.

The NHS is predominantly funded through general taxation. Employer (including the state) and employee contributions represent the main funding sources of the health subsystems. In addition, direct payments by the patient and voluntary health insurance premiums account for a large proportion of funding.

Similar to the other Eur-A countries, most Portuguese die from noncommunicable diseases . Mortality from cardiovascular diseases (CVD) is higher than in the Eurozone , but its two main components, ischaemic heart disease and cerebrovascular disease, display inverse trends compared with the Eur-A, with cerebrovascular disease being the single biggest killer in Portugal (17%). Portuguese people die 12% less often from cancer than in the Eur-A, but mortality is not declining as rapidly as in the Eur-A. Cancer is more frequent among children as well as among women younger than 44 years. Although lung cancer (slowly increasing among women) and breast cancer (decreasing rapidly) are scarcer, cancer of the cervix and the prostate are more frequent. Portugal has the highest mortality rate for diabetes in the Eur-A, with a sharp increase since the late 1980s.

Portugal's infant mortality rate has dropped sharply since the 1980s, when 24 of 1000 newborns died in the first year of life. It is now around 3 deaths per a 1000 newborns. This improvement was mainly due to the decrease in neonatal mortality, from 15.5 to 3.4 per 1000 live births.

People are usually well informed about their health status, the positive and negative effects of their behaviour on their health and their use of health care services. Yet their perceptions of their health can differ from what administrative and examination-based data show about levels of illness within populations. Thus, survey results based on self-reporting at the household level complement other data on health status and the use of services. Only one third of adults rated their health as good or very good in Portugal (Kasmel et al., 2004). This is the lowest of the Eur-A countries reporting and reflects the relatively adverse situation of the country in terms of mortality and selected morbidity. [ 80 ]

[ editar ] Cultura

Belém Tower , Lisbon , Lisbon . A UNESCO World Heritage Site and a typical example of Portugal's unique Manueline architecture.

Portugal has developed a specific culture while being influenced by various civilizations that have crossed the Mediterranean and the European continent, or were introduced when it played an active role during the Age of Discovery . In the 1990s and 2000s, Portugal modernized its public cultural facilities, in addition to the Calouste Gulbenkian Foundation established in 1956 in Lisbon. These include the Belém Cultural Center in Lisbon, Serralves Foundation and the Casa da Música , both in Porto , as well as new public cultural facilities like municipal libraries and concert halls that were built or renovated in many municipalities across the country.

[ edit ] Architecture

Traditional architecture is distinctive and include the Manueline , also known as Portuguese late Gothic, a sumptuous, composite Portuguese style of architectural ornamentation of the first decades of the 16th century, incorporating maritime elements and representations of the Portuguese Age of Discovery . Modern Portugal has given the world renowned architects like Eduardo Souto de Moura , Álvaro Siza Vieira (both Pritzker Prize winners) and Gonçalo Byrne . In Portugal Tomás Taveira is also noteworthy, particularly due to stadium design. [ 81 ] [ 82 ] [ 83 ]

[ edit ] Cinema

Portuguese cinema has a long tradition, reaching back to the birth of the medium in the late 19th century. Portuguese film directors such as Arthur Duarte , António Lopes Ribeiro , Pedro Costa , Manoel de Oliveira , António-Pedro Vasconcelos , João César Monteiro , João Botelho and Leonel Vieira , are among those that gained notability. Noted Portuguese film actors include Joaquim de Almeida , Daniela Ruah , Maria de Medeiros , Diogo Infante , Soraia Chaves , Vasco Santana , Ribeirinho , and António Silva , among many others

[ edit ] Literature

Portuguese novelist José Saramago was awarded the Nobel Prize for Literature in 1998.
Luís de Camões , Portuguese poet of the 16th century.

Portuguese literature , one of the earliest Western literatures, developed through text and song. Until 1350, the Portuguese-Galician troubadours spread their literary influence to most of the Iberian Peninsula. [ 84 ] Gil Vicente (ca. 1465 – ca. 1536), was one of the founders of both Portuguese and Spanish dramatic traditions.

Adventurer and poet Luís de Camões (ca. 1524–1580) wrote the epic poem "Os Lusíadas" ( The Lusiads ), with Virgil 's Aeneid as his main influence. Modern Portuguese poetry is rooted in neoclassic and contemporary styles, as exemplified by Fernando Pessoa (1888–1935). Modern Portuguese literature is represented by authors such as Almeida Garrett , Camilo Castelo Branco , Eça de Queiroz , Sophia de Mello Breyner Andresen , António Lobo Antunes and Miguel Torga . Particularly popular and distinguished is José Saramago , winner of the 1998 Nobel Prize for literature .

[ edit ] Cuisine

Portuguese cuisine is diverse. The Portuguese consume a lot of dry cod ( bacalhau in Portuguese), for which there are hundreds of recipes . There are more than enough bacalhau dishes for each day of the year. Two other popular fish recipes are grilled sardines and caldeirada , a potato-based stew that can be made from several types of fish. Typical Portuguese meat recipes, that may be made out of beef, pork, lamb , or chicken, include cozido à portuguesa , feijoada , frango de churrasco , leitão (roast suckling pig ) and carne de porco à alentejana , a very popular northern dish is the arroz de sarrabulho (rice stewed in pigs blood) or the arroz de cabidela (Rice and chickens meat stewed in chickens blood).

Typical fast food dishes include the francesinha from Porto, and bifanas (grilled pork) or prego (grilled beef) sandwiches , which are well known around the country. The Portuguese art of pastry has its origins in Middle-Ages Catholic monasteries widely spread across the country. These monasteries, using very few ingredients (mostly almonds, flour, eggs and some liquor), managed to create a spectacular wide range of different pastries, of which pastéis de Belém (or pastéis de nata ) originally from Lisbon, and ovos moles from Aveiro are examples. Portuguese cuisine is very diverse, with different regions having their own traditional dishes. The Portuguese have a culture of good food and throughout the country there are myriad good restaurants and small typical tascas .

Portuguese wines have deserved international recognition since the times of the Roman Empire, which associated Portugal with their god Bacchus . Today the country is known by wine lovers and its wines have won several international prizes. Some of the best Portuguese wines are: Vinho Verde , Vinho Alvarinho , Vinho do Douro , Vinho do Alentejo , Vinho do Dão , Vinho da Bairrada and the sweet: Port Wine , Madeira Wine and the Moscatel from Setúbal and Favaios . Port Wine is well known around the world and the most widely known wine type in the world [ citation needed ] . The Douro wine region is the oldest in the world [ citation needed ] .

[ edit ] Music

The Fado , painting by Portuguese artist José Malhoa (1855–1933).

Portuguese music encompasses a wide variety of genres. The most renowned is fado , a melancholy urban music, usually associated with the Portuguese guitar and saudade , or longing. Coimbra fado , a unique type of fado, is also noteworthy. Internationally notable performers include Amália Rodrigues , Carlos Paredes , José Afonso , Mariza , Carlos do Carmo , António Chainho , Mísia , and Madredeus . One of the most notable Portuguese musical groups outside the country, and especially in Germany, is the goth-metal band Moonspell .

In addition to fado and folk, the Portuguese listen to pop and other types of modern music, particularly from North America and the United Kingdom, as well as a wide range of Portuguese and Brazilian artists and bands. Bands with international recognition include Blasted Mechanism and The Gift , both of which were nominated for an MTV Europe Music Award .

Casa da Música , a concert hall in Porto .

Portugal has several summer music festivals, such as Festival Sudoeste in Zambujeira do Mar , Festival de Paredes de Coura in Paredes de Coura , Festival Vilar de Mouros near Caminha , and Optimus Alive! , Rock in Rio Lisboa and Super Bock Super Rock in Greater Lisbon . Out of the summer season, Portugal has a large number of festivals, designed more to an urban audience, like Flowfest or Hip Hop Porto. Furthermore, one of the largest international Goa trance festivals takes place in central Portugal every two years, and the student festivals of Queima das Fitas are major events in a number of cities across Portugal. In 2005, Portugal held the MTV Europe Music Awards , in Pavilhão Atlântico , Lisbon .

Fandango is one of the most popular regional dances.

In the Classical music domain, Portugal is represented by names as the pianist Artur Pizarro , Maria João Pires , Sequeira Costa , the violinists Gerardo Ribeiro , Carlos Damas , and in the past by the great cellist Guilhermina Suggia . Notable composers include José Vianna da Motta , Carlos Seixas , João Domingos Bomtempo , João de Sousa Carvalho , Luís de Freitas Branco and his student Joly Braga Santos , Fernando Lopes-Graça , Emmanuel Nunes and Sérgio Azevedo .

[ edit ] Painting

It has also a rich history as far as painting is concerned. The first well-known painters date back to the 15th century – like Nuno Gonçalves – were part of the Gothic painting period. José Malhoa , known for his work Fado , and Columbano Bordalo Pinheiro (who painted the portraits of Teófilo Braga and Antero de Quental ) were both references in naturalist painting.

The 20th century saw the arrival of Modernism , and along with it came the most prominent Portuguese painters: Amadeo de Souza-Cardoso , who was heavily influenced by French painters, particularly by the Delaunays . Among his best known works is Canção Popular a Russa eo Fígaro . Another great modernist painter/writer was Almada Negreiros , friend to the poet Fernando Pessoa , who painted his (Pessoa's) portrait. He was deeply influenced by both Cubist and Futurist trends. Prominent international figures in visual arts nowadays include painters Vieira da Silva , Júlio Pomar , Helena Almeida , Joana Vasconcelos , Julião Sarmento and Paula Rego .

[ edit ] Sport

Opening ceremony of the UEFA Euro 2004 , at Estádio do Dragão , Porto .

Football (soccer) is the most popular and played sport. There are several football competitions ranging from local amateur to world-class professional level. The legendary Eusébio is still a major symbol of Portuguese football history. FIFA World Player of the Year winners Luís Figo and Cristiano Ronaldo , are among the numerous examples of other world-class football (soccer) players born in Portugal and noted worldwide. Portuguese football managers are also noteworthy, with José Mourinho , Carlos Queiroz and Manuel José among the most renowned.

The Portuguese national teams , have titles in the FIFA World Youth Championship and in the UEFA youth championships. The main national team – Selecção Nacional – finished second in Euro 2004 (held in Portugal), reached the third place in the 1966 FIFA World Cup , and reached the fourth place in the 2006 FIFA World Cup , their best results in major competitions to date.

Sport Lisboa e Benfica , Futebol Clube do Porto , and Sporting Clube de Portugal are the largest sports clubs by popularity and in terms of trophies won, often known as " os três grandes " ( "the big three" ). They have 12 titles won in the European UEFA club competitions, were present in many finals and have been regular contenders in the last stages almost every season. Other than football, many Portuguese sports clubs, including the "big three", compete in several other sports events with a varying level of success and popularity, these may include basketball, futsal , handball , and volleyball.

Portugal has a successful rink hockey team, with 15 world titles and 20 European titles , making it the country with the most wins in both competitions. The most successful Portuguese rink hockey clubs in the history of European championships are Futebol Clube do Porto , Sport Lisboa e Benfica and Óquei de Barcelos .

The national rugby union team made a dramatic qualification into the 2007 Rugby World Cup and became the first all amateur team to qualify for the World Cup since the dawn of the professional era. The Portuguese national rugby sevens team has performed well, becoming one of the strongest teams in Europe, and proved their status as European champions in several occasions.

Pavilhão Atlântico (Atlantic Pavilion), an indoor sports venue and concert hall in Lisbon .

In athletics, the Portuguese have won a number of gold, silver and bronze medals in the European, World and Olympic Games competitions. Cycling , with Volta a Portugal being the most important race, is also a popular sports event and include professional cycling teams such as Sport Lisboa e Benfica , Boavista , Clube de Ciclismo de Tavira , and União Ciclista da Maia .

Surfing and Body Boarding are very popular in Portugal. In the picture the World Surfing Championships being held in Madeira.

The country has also achieved notable performances in sports like fencing , judo , kitesurf , rowing , sailing, surfing , shooting, triathlon and windsurf , owning several European and world titles. The paralympic athletes have also conquered many medals in sports like swimming, boccia and wrestling .

In motor sport, Portugal is internationally noted for the Rally of Portugal , and the Estoril , Algarve Circuits and the revived Porto Street Circuit which holds a stage of the WTCC every two years, as well as for a number of internationally noted pilots in varied motor sports .

In equestrian sports, Portugal won the only Horseball-Pato World Championship (in 2006), achieved the third position in the First Horseball World Cup (organized in Ponte de Lima, Portugal, in 2008), and has achieved several victories in the European Working Equitation Championship.

In swimming sports, Portugal has two major sports: Swimming and Water Polo .

Northern Portugal has its own original martial art , Jogo do Pau , in which the fighters use staffs to confront one or several opponents.

Other popular sport-related recreational outdoor activities with thousands of enthusiasts nationwide include airsoft , fishing, golf, hiking, hunting and orienteering .

[ editar ] Ver também


[ editar ] Referências

Notas
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Fontes
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  • Juang, Noelle Anne (2008). Africa and the Americas: Culture, Politics, and History: A Multidisciplinary Encyclopedia . 2 . ISBN 978-1-85109-441-7 .  
  • Page, Penny M. (2003). Colonialism: An International, Social, Cultural, and Political Encyclopedia . 2 . ISBN 978-1-57607-335-3 .  
  • Brockey, Liam Matthew (2008). Portuguese Colonial Cities in the Early Modern World . ISBN 978-0-7546-6313-3 .  
  • Ribeiro, Ângelo (2004) (in Portuguese). História de Portugal I — A Formação do Território [History of Portugal: The Formation of the Territory] . QuidNovi. ISBN 989-554-106-6 .  
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  • Grande Enciclopédia Universal . Durclub. 2004.  
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