Socialismo

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Socialismo jogar / s o? ? ?l ? z ?m / é um sistema econômico caracterizado pela propriedade social eo controle do meio de produção e gestão cooperativa da economia, [1] e uma filosofia política defendendo tal sistema. "Propriedade social" pode se referir a qualquer um dos, ou uma combinação de, o seguinte: cooperativas empresas, de propriedade comum , direto de propriedade pública ou autônomos empresas estatais . [2] Há muitas variações do socialismo e, como tal, não há uma definição única encapsular todos do socialismo. [3] Eles diferem no tipo de propriedade social que eles defendem, o grau em que eles confiam em mercados contra o planejamento , como a gestão deve ser organizada em empreendimentos econômicos, e do papel do Estado na construção do socialismo. [4]

Um sistema econômico socialista consistiria de uma organização de produção diretamente para satisfazer as demandas econômicas e necessidades humanas, de modo que os bens e serviços seriam produzidos diretamente para o uso em vez de para o lucro privado, conduzido pela acumulação de capital e de contabilidade seria baseada em física quantidades , uma grandeza física comum, ou uma medida direta do tempo de trabalho . [5] [6] Distribuição da produção seria baseada no princípio da contribuição individual .

Como um movimento político , o socialismo inclui um diversificado leque de filosofias políticas, que vão desde o reformismo ao socialismo revolucionário . Os defensores do socialismo de Estado defensor para a nacionalização dos meios de produção, distribuição e troca como uma estratégia para implementar o socialismo. social-democratas defendem tributação redistributiva, na forma de bem-estar social e regulamentação do governo do capital no âmbito de uma economia de mercado . [7 ] Em contraste, o anarquismo e socialismo libertário propor o controle direto do trabalhador dos meios de produção e se opor ao uso do poder do Estado para alcançar tal acordo, opondo-se tanto a política parlamentares ea propriedade estatal sobre os meios de produção.

Socialismo moderno se originou a partir de um movimento de classe do século 18, intelectual e ao trabalho político que criticou os efeitos da industrialização e da propriedade privada na sociedade. No início do século 19, o "socialismo" se referia a qualquer preocupação com os problemas sociais do capitalismo, independentemente da solução. No entanto, no final do século 19, o "socialismo" veio a significar oposição ao capitalismo e advocacia para um sistema alternativo baseado em alguma forma de propriedade social. [8] os socialistas utópicos , como Robert Owen (1771-1858) tentou encontrado auto-sustentação comunas de secessão de uma sociedade capitalista. Socialistas inspirados no modelo soviético de desenvolvimento econômico , como marxistas-leninistas , têm defendido a criação de central economias planejadas dirigidas por um estado de partido único que possui os meios de produção. iugoslavo , húngaro , alemão oriental e chinesas governos comunistas instituíram várias formas de socialismo de mercado , combinando co-operativas e propriedade estatal modelos com o mercado livre de câmbio e sistema de preços livres (mas não os preços livres para os meios de produção). [9]

Conteúdo

[ editar ] Filosofia

Socialistas aderem a uma gama diversificada de pontos de vista filosóficos. Socialismo marxista é filosoficamente materialista , bem como ter em seu centro um compromisso com o materialismo histórico . Muitas formas de teoria socialista considerou que o comportamento humano é em grande parte moldada pelo ambiente social. Em particular, o marxismo e os socialistas inspirado pela teoria marxista, que detém sociais costumes , valores, traços culturais e práticas econômicas são criações sociais, e não são o resultado de uma imutável lei natural . [10] O objetivo final para marxista socialistas é a emancipação do trabalho de alienar trabalho . Os marxistas argumentam que libertar o indivíduo da necessidade de realizar o trabalho alienante, a fim de receber bens permitiria as pessoas a buscarem seus próprios interesses e desenvolver seus próprios talentos, sem ser coagido a realizar trabalho para os outros. Para os marxistas, o estágio de desenvolvimento econômico em que isso é possível está subordinada avanços nas capacidades produtivas da sociedade.

Socialistas geralmente argumentam que o capitalismo concentra poder e riqueza dentro de um pequeno segmento da sociedade que controla os meios de produção e deriva a sua riqueza através de um sistema de exploração . Isso cria uma sociedade estratificada com base em desiguais relações sociais que não oferecem oportunidades iguais para todos os indivíduos a maximizar seu potencial, [11] e não utilizar a tecnologia disponível e os recursos a seu potencial máximo no interesse do público, [12] e centra-se na satisfação induzida pelo mercado, quer em oposição às necessidades humanas. [ carece de fontes? ] Os socialistas argumentam que o socialismo iria permitir que a riqueza seja distribuída com base em quanto se contribui para a sociedade, ao contrário de quanto capital um detém. [ carece de fontes? ]

Os socialistas defendem que o capitalismo é um sistema ilegítimo econômica, uma vez que serve amplamente os interesses dos donos do capital e envolve a exploração de outras classes econômicas. Como tal, deseja substituí-lo completamente, ou pelo menos fazer modificações substanciais a ele, a fim de criar uma sociedade mais justa que garanta um certo padrão básico de vida. [13] [14] O principal objetivo do socialismo é a igualdade social e uma distribuição de riqueza com base em uma de contribuição para a sociedade , e um arranjo econômico que servisse os interesses da sociedade como um todo. [ carece de fontes? ]

[ editar ] Economia

A concepção original do socialismo foi um sistema econômico em que a produção foi organizada de forma a produzir diretamente bens e serviços para seu valor de uso, a alocação direta de recursos de acordo para satisfazer as demandas econômicas, sem cálculo financeiro ea mobilização da economia baseada em física unidades, em oposição às leis econômicas do capitalismo (ver: lei do valor ), muitas vezes implicando o fim da capitalistas categorias econômicas, como renda , juros , lucro e dinheiro . [15]

Isso contrasta com o capitalismo, onde a produção é feita para o lucro e, portanto, com base na alocação indireta. Em um capitalismo ideal baseado em concorrência perfeita , as pressões competitivas obrigam as empresas de negócios para responder às necessidades dos consumidores, de modo que a busca do lucro se aproxima a produção para utilização através de um processo indireto (pressões competitivas sobre as empresas privadas).

O socialismo de mercado refere-se a um conjunto de diferentes teorias econômicas e os sistemas que utilizam o mecanismo de mercado para organizar a produção e para alocar entradas fator entre as empresas de propriedade social, com o excedente econômico (lucros) resultantes para a sociedade como um dividendo social em oposição ao capital privado proprietários. [16] Variações de socialismo de mercado incluem Libertário propostas, tais como o mutualismo , e neoclássicos modelos econômicos, como o Modelo de Lange .

A propriedade dos meios de produção pode ser baseada em posse direta pelos usuários da propriedade produtiva por meio de cooperativas de trabalho , ou de propriedade comum por toda a sociedade com a gestão e controle delegado para aqueles que operam / ??usar os meios de produção, ou a propriedade pública por um aparelho de Estado. A propriedade pública pode se referir à criação de empresas estatais e de nacionalização ou municipalização . A característica fundamental de uma economia socialista é que de propriedade pública, autogeridas instituições produzir bens e serviços, pelo menos nos altos comandos da economia. [17] [18]

Gestão e controle sobre as atividades das empresas baseia-se em auto-gestão e auto-governo, com igualdade de relações de poder no local de trabalho para maximizar a autonomia profissional. A forma socialista de organização seria eliminar o controle hierarquias de modo que apenas uma hierarquia baseada no conhecimento técnico no local de trabalho permanece. Cada membro teria o poder de decisão na empresa e seria capaz de participar na elaboração dos seus objectivos políticos globais. As políticas / objetivos seriam realizadas pelos especialistas técnicos que formam a hierarquia de coordenação da empresa, que pretende estabelecer planos e diretrizes para o trabalho comunitário para cumprir essas metas. [19]

O papel eo uso de dinheiro em uma economia hipotética socialista é uma questão controversa. Socialistas incluindo Karl Marx , Robert Owen e Pierre-Joseph Proudhon defendiam as diversas formas de comprovantes de trabalho ou trabalho-créditos, que como o dinheiro seria usado para adquirir artigos de consumo, mas ao contrário do dinheiro que não seria capaz de se tornar o capital e não seria usado para alocar recursos dentro do processo de produção. Revolucionário bolchevique Leon Trotsky argumentou que, na sequência de uma revolução socialista, o dinheiro não pode ser arbitrariamente suprimido. O dinheiro teve de esgotar a sua "missão histórica" ??(continuar a ser utilizados até que se tornou redundante) e, mais tarde transformado em recibos de contabilidade para os estatísticos, e no futuro mais distante, não pode ser necessária para que até mesmo o papel. [20]

"Estou convencido de que há apenas uma maneira de eliminar a (o) (graves males do capitalismo), nomeadamente através do estabelecimento de uma economia socialista, acompanhada por um sistema educacional que seria orientado para objetivos sociais. Em tal economia, os meios de produção são detidos pela própria sociedade e são utilizados de forma planejada. Uma economia planeada, que adeque a produção às necessidades da comunidade, distribuiria o trabalho a ser feito entre aqueles que podem trabalhar e garantiria o sustento a todos os homens , mulher e criança. A educação do indivíduo, além de promover suas próprias capacidades inatas, tentaria desenvolver nele um sentido de responsabilidade por seus semelhantes em lugar da glorificação do poder e do sucesso na nossa actual sociedade. "

- Albert Einstein , Porquê o Socialismo, de 1949? [21]

[ editar ] A economia planificada

A economia planificada é um tipo de economia consiste de uma mistura de propriedade pública dos meios de produção e coordenação de produção e distribuição através de planejamento estatal . Enrico Barone desde um quadro global teórica para uma economia planejada socialista. Em seu modelo, assumindo técnicas de computação perfeitos, equações simultâneas relativas entradas e saídas de relações de equivalência seria fornecer avaliações adequadas, a fim de equilibrar a oferta ea demanda. [22]

O exemplo mais proeminente de uma economia planificada é o sistema econômico da União Soviética , e, como tal, o modelo centralizado planejada econômico é geralmente associada com o estados comunistas do século 20, onde foi combinada com um sistema de partido único político . Em uma economia centralmente planificada, as decisões relativas à quantidade de bens e serviços a serem produzidos são planejadas com antecedência por uma agência de planejamento.

Os sistemas económicos da União Soviética e do bloco do Leste são ainda classificados como economias de comando, que são definidas como sistemas onde a coordenação económica é realizada por comandos, diretrizes e metas de produção. [23] Nestes sistemas, o planejamento centralizado determinou que os bens e serviços estavam a ser prestado, como deviam ser produzidos, as quantidades e os preços de venda. Soviética planejamento econômico era uma alternativa para permitir que o mercado ( oferta e demanda ) para determinar os preços dos bens produtores e consumidores. A economia soviética utilizado contabilidade balanço de material , a fim de equilibrar o fornecimento de insumos disponíveis com as metas de produção, embora isso nunca totalmente substituído contabilidade financeira. Embora a economia soviética era nominalmente uma economia centralmente planificada, na prática, o plano foi formulado on-the-go como informações foram coletadas e transmitidas a partir de empresas de planejamento dos ministérios.

Vários economistas e teóricos políticos criticaram a noção de que as economias planejadas de estilo soviético representou um tipo de economia socialista. Esta análise destaca o fato de que a economia soviética foi estruturado sobre a acumulação de capital e da extração de mais-valia da classe trabalhadora pela agência de planejamento a fim de reinvestir o superávit na produção de novo num ciclo perpétuo - ou para distribuir aos gestores e altos funcionários na forma de bônus, indicando a União Soviética (e outras de tipo soviético economias) eram, na realidade estatais capitalistas economias. [24] Outros socialistas têm-se centrado sobre a falta de auto-gestão , a existência continuada de cálculo financeiro e existência de uma elite burocrática baseada em poderes hierárquicos e centralizados de autoridade no modelo soviético, levando-os a concluir que o sistema soviético não era socialista, em vez categorizando-lo como coletivismo burocrático , capitalismo de estado ou estados operários deformados .

[ editar ] economia de auto-gestão

A economia auto-gerenciado descentralizada baseia-se na auto-regulação dos operadores e um mecanismo descentralizado de alocação e de tomada de decisão e tem encontrado apoio em notáveis ??economistas clássicos e neoclássicos, incluindo Alfred Marshall , John Stuart Mill e Jaroslav Vanek . Existem inúmeras variações de auto-gestão, incluindo mão-de-geridas as empresas e os trabalhadores geridas empresas. As metas de auto-gestão é para eliminar a exploração e reduzir a alienação . [25] Historicamente, esta manifestou-se em propostas de trabalho de cooperativas e de planejamento descentralizado através de uma democracia participativa .

Um certo grau de auto-gestão foi praticado no sistema econômico da República Federal Socialista da Jugoslávia , o que contrasta com o planejamento centralizado de empresas em estilo soviético economias planificadas.

Um tal sistema é a economia cooperativa, uma grande parte livre economia de mercado em que os trabalhadores gerir as empresas e democraticamente determinar os níveis de remuneração e divisões de trabalho. Recursos produtivos seriam legalmente de propriedade da cooperativa e alugado para os trabalhadores, que gostariam de usufruto de direitos. [26] Outra forma de planejamento descentralizado é o uso de cibernética , ou o uso de computadores para gerenciar a alocação de insumos econômicos. O governo socialista de gerência de Salvador Allende no Chile experimentou Projeto Cybersyn , uma ponte de informação em tempo real entre as empresas do governo, estado e consumidores. [27] Outra, mais recente, a variante é a economia participativa , onde a economia é planejada por descentralizada conselhos de trabalhadores e consumidores. Os trabalhadores seriam remunerados exclusivamente de acordo com esforço e sacrifício, para que os envolvidos em trabalho perigoso, desconfortável e cansativo receberia os rendimentos mais altos e, assim, poderia trabalhar menos. [28] Um modelo contemporâneo para uma auto-gerida, o socialismo não-mercado é Pat Devine o modelo de coordenação negociada. Coordenação negociada é baseado em propriedade social por aqueles afetados pelo uso dos ativos envolvidos, com as decisões tomadas por aqueles que estão no nível mais localizada de produção. [29]

Michel Bauwens identifica o surgimento do movimento do software aberto e peer-to-peer de produção como uma nova alternativa de modo de produção para a economia capitalista e economia centralmente planejada que se baseia na colaboração de auto-gestão, propriedade comum dos recursos, ea produção de valores de uso através da cooperação livre entre produtores que têm acesso a capital distribuído. [30]

O anarco-comunismo é uma teoria do anarquismo , que defende a abolição do estado , a propriedade privada , o capitalismo e em favor da propriedade comum do meios de produção . [31] [32] De planejamento centralizado está associada com os movimentos políticos do anarquismo social , o anarco-comunismo , o trotskismo , conselho comunismo , o comunismo de esquerda e socialismo democrático .

[ editar ] Estado-dirigido economia

A economia do estado-dirigido é um sistema onde tanto as cooperativas estaduais ou trabalhador possuir meios de produção, mas a atividade econômica é dirigida a um certo grau por uma agência governamental ou Ministério do Planejamento por meio de mecanismos de coordenação, tais como planejamento indicativo e dirigismo . Isso difere de uma economia centralizada planejada (ou uma economia de comando) em que a tomada de decisões micro-econômicas, como a quantidade a ser produzida e os requisitos de saída, são deixados para gestores e trabalhadores nas empresas estatais e cooperativas, em vez de ser obrigada por um abrangente plano econômico de um conselho de planejamento centralizado. No entanto, o Estado planeja investimentos de longo prazo estratégico e procurar coordenar, pelo menos, alguns aspectos da produção. É possível para uma economia estatal dirigida a ter elementos de ambos um mercado e economia planificada. Por exemplo, as decisões de investimento podem ser semi-planejada pelo Estado, mas as decisões em matéria de produção pode ser determinada pelo mecanismo de mercado.

Estado-dirigiu o socialismo pode também referir-se ao socialismo tecnocrático; sistemas econômicos que dependem de gestão tecnocrática sobre os meios de produção e da política econômica [. carece de fontes? ]

Na Europa Ocidental, particularmente no período após a Segunda Guerra Mundial , muitos socialistas e sociais-democratas no governo implementou o que ficou conhecido como economias mistas, alguns dos quais incluídos um grau de atividade estatal dirigida econômica. [ carece de fontes? ] Na biografia de de 1945 do Partido Trabalhista do Reino Unido o primeiro-ministro Clement Attlee , Francis Beckett afirma: "o governo ... queria que viria a ser conhecida como uma economia mista". [33] Beckett também afirma que "todo mundo chamava o governo 1945 'socialista'." Esses governos nacionalizaram grandes indústrias e economicamente vital, enquanto que permitam um mercado livre para continuar no resto. [ carece de fontes? ] Estes eram na maioria das vezes indústrias monopolistas ou de infra-estrutura como o correio, linhas férreas, energia e outras utilidades. Em alguns casos, um número de pequenas empresas concorrentes e, muitas vezes relativamente mal financiados no mesmo setor foram nacionalizadas para formar um monopólio do governo com o propósito de uma gestão competente de resgate econômico (no Reino Unido, British Leyland , Rolls-Royce ), ou de competir no mercado mundial. [ carece de fontes? ]

A nacionalização no Reino Unido foi obtida através de expropriação da indústria (ou seja, com compensação). British Aerospace foi uma combinação de empresas grandes aeronaves britânico Aircraft Corporation , Hawker Siddeley e outros. Shipbuilders britânicos foi uma combinação das principais empresas de construção naval, incluindo Cammell Laird , Shipbuilders Govan e Swan Hunter , e estaleiros Yarrow , a nacionalização das minas de carvão em 1947 criou um conselho de carvão carregado com o funcionamento da indústria do carvão comercialmente, de modo a ser capaz de cumprir os juros a pagar sobre os títulos que as ações dos proprietários de minas antigas 'tinha foi convertido em. [34] [35]

[ editar ] O socialismo de mercado

O socialismo de mercado é composto por empresas públicas ou propriedade da cooperativa que operam em uma economia de mercado . É um sistema que utiliza os de mercado e preços monetária para a atribuição ea contabilidade do meio de produção , mantendo assim o processo de acumulação de capital . O lucro gerado será usado para remunerar os empregados diretamente ou financiar instituições públicas. [36] No estado orientados para as formas de socialismo de mercado, em que estado tentativa empresas para maximizar os lucros, os lucros podem ser usados ??para financiar programas e serviços do governo através de um sociais dividendo , eliminando ou reduzindo consideravelmente a necessidade de várias formas de tributação que existem nos sistemas capitalistas. O economista neoclássico Leon Walras acreditava que uma economia socialista baseada na propriedade estatal da terra e dos recursos naturais que fornecem um meio de financiamento público para fazer imposto de renda desnecessária. [37] Iugoslávia implementou uma economia socialista de mercado com base em cooperativas e autogestão.

O sistema econômico atual da China é formalmente intitulado economia de mercado socialista com características chinesas . Ele combina um setor de grande estado, que compreende os 'altos comandos "da economia, que são garantidos o seu estatuto de propriedade pública por lei, [38] com um setor privado, principalmente envolvidos na produção de commodities e indústria leve e responsável de qualquer lugar, entre 33% [39 ] (Diário do Povo On-line 2005) para mais de 70% do PIB gerado em 2005. [40] No entanto, até 2005, estas reformas orientadas para o mercado, incluindo a privatização, praticamente parou e foi parcialmente revertida. [41] A atual economia chinesa consiste de 150 corporatizadas empresas estatais que se reportam diretamente ao governo central da China. [42] Em 2008, estas empresas estatais se tornaram cada vez mais dinâmico e gerados grandes aumentos na receita para o Estado, [43] [44] , resultando em uma recuperação de estado liderado pelo setor durante as crises financeiras de 2009, enquanto responsável por maior parte do crescimento econômico da China. [45]

A República Socialista do Vietnã adotou um modelo semelhante após o Doi Moi renovação econômica, mas pouco difere do modelo chinês em que o governo vietnamita mantém firme controle sobre o setor estatal e setores estratégicos, mas permite a actividades do sector privado na produção de mercadorias . [46] No entanto, a falta de auto-gestão em empreendimentos econômicos eo papel crescente de privatização sugere que estas economias representam realmente o capitalismo de estado , em vez do socialismo verdadeiro mercado. [ carece de fontes? ]

[ editar ] A teoria social e política

Marxistas e não marxistas teóricos sociais concordam que o socialismo desenvolveu em reação ao capitalismo industrial moderno, mas discordar sobre a natureza de seu relacionamento. [ carece de fontes? ] Neste contexto, o socialismo tem sido usado para se referir a um movimento político , uma filosofia política e uma forma hipotética de sociedade esses movimentos visam atingir. Como resultado, em um contexto político o socialismo passou a se referir a estratégia (para alcançar uma sociedade socialista) ou as políticas promovidas por organizações socialistas e partidos políticos socialistas, todos os quais não têm ligação com o socialismo como um sistema sócio-econômico.

[ editar ] marxismo

Karl Marx , 1875

No mais influente de todas as teorias socialistas, Karl Marx e Friedrich Engels acreditava que a consciência daqueles que ganham salário ou vencimento (a "classe trabalhadora", no mais amplo sentido marxista) seriam moldados pelas suas "condições" de "escravidão assalariada ", levando a uma tendência de buscar a sua liberdade ou" emancipação "ao derrubar a propriedade dos meios de produção pelos capitalistas. Para Marx e Engels, as condições determinam a consciência e acabar com o papel da classe capitalista leva eventualmente a uma sociedade sem classes na qual o Estado iria definhar.

Marx escreveu: ". Não é a consciência de [pessoas] que determina sua existência, mas sua existência social que determina sua consciência" [47]

A concepção marxista do socialismo é que de uma fase histórica específica que irá deslocar o capitalismo e preceder o comunismo . As principais características do socialismo (em particular tal como concebido por Marx e Engels após a Comuna de Paris de 1871) são de que o proletariado irá controlar os meios de produção através de um Estado operário construído pelos trabalhadores em seus interesses. A atividade econômica ainda ser organizado através da utilização de sistemas de incentivos e classes sociais ainda existem, mas em menor escala e diminuindo do que sob o capitalismo.

Para os marxistas ortodoxos, o socialismo é o estágio inferior do comunismo baseado no princípio de "de cada um segundo sua capacidade, a cada um segundo a sua contribuição ", enquanto o comunismo estágio superior é baseado no princípio de" de cada um segundo sua capacidade, a cada um segundo sua necessidade ";. o estágio superior tornando-se possível somente após a fase socialista desenvolve a eficiência econômica e da automação da produção levou a uma superabundância de bens e serviços [48] [49]

Marx argumentava que as forças produtivas materiais (na indústria e comércio) trazidos à existência do capitalismo baseada numa sociedade cooperativa, desde a produção tornou-se uma massa social, atividade coletiva da classe trabalhadora para criar mercadorias, mas com a propriedade privada (as relações de produção ou de bens relações). Este conflito entre o esforço coletivo em grandes fábricas e de propriedade privada traria um desejo consciente da classe trabalhadora para estabelecer a propriedade coletiva compatível com os esforços coletivos de sua experiência diária. [50]

"Em um certo estágio de desenvolvimento, as forças produtivas materiais da sociedade entram em contradição com as relações de produção existentes ou - isso apenas expressa a mesma coisa em termos legais -. Com as relações de propriedade no âmbito dos quais tenham operado até então seguida começa uma época de revolução social. As mudanças na base econômica levam mais cedo ou mais tarde, para a transformação de toda a imensa superestrutura ". [50] A sociedade socialista baseada na cooperação democrática, assim, surgir. [ carece de fontes? ] Eventualmente o Estado, associada a todas as sociedades anteriores, que são divididos em classes com a finalidade de suprimir as classes oprimidas, se esvai. [ carece de fontes? ]

Che Guevara procurou socialismo baseado no campesinato rural, em vez de a classe trabalhadora urbana, tentando inspirar os camponeses da Bolívia pelo seu próprio exemplo para uma mudança de consciência. Guevara disse em 1965:

O socialismo não pode existir sem uma mudança na consciência, resultando em uma nova atitude fraternal para com a humanidade, tanto em nível individual, nas sociedades onde o socialismo está sendo construída ou que tenha sido construído, e em escala mundial, no que diz respeito a todos os povos que sofrem de imperialista opressão. [51]

Em meados do século 20, intelectuais socialistas manteve uma influência considerável na filosofia européia. Eros e Civilização (1955), por Herbert Marcuse , explicitamente tentou fundir o marxismo com o freudismo . [ carece de fontes? ] A ciência social marxista estruturalismo teve uma influência significativa no socialista New Left nos anos 1960 e 1970. [ carece de fontes? ]

[ editar ] utópica contra científica

A distinção entre " utópico "e" científico socialismo "foi explicitamente feita por Friedrich Engels em Socialismo Utópico ao Científico , que contrastou as "imagens utópicas de condições ideais sociais" dos reformadores sociais com o conceito marxista do socialismo científico [. carece de fontes? ] socialismo científico começa com a análise dos fenômenos de o sociais e econômicas estudo empírico dos processos reais na sociedade e na história. [ carece de fontes? ]

Para os marxistas, o desenvolvimento do capitalismo na Europa Ocidental desde uma base material para a possibilidade de trazer o socialismo, porque, de acordo com o Manifesto Comunista : "O que a burguesia produz, sobretudo, seus próprios coveiros", [52] ou seja, a classe trabalhadora , que deve tornar-se consciente dos objectivos históricos defini-lo pela sociedade.

Eduard Bernstein revised this theory to suggest that society is inevitably moving toward socialism, bringing in a mechanical and teleological element to Marxism and initiating the concept of evolutionary socialism. [ citation needed ] Thorstein Veblen saw socialism as an immediate stage in an ongoing evolutionary process in economics that would result from the natural decay of the system of business enterprise; in contrast to Marx, he did not believe it would be the result of political struggle or revolution by the working class and did not believe it to be the ultimate goal of humanity. [ 53 ]

Utopian socialists establish a set of ideals or goals and present socialism as an alternative to capitalism, with subjectively better attributes. Examples of this form of socialism include Robert Owen 's New Harmony community. [ citation needed ]

[ edit ] Reform versus revolution

Reformists , such as classical social democrats , believe that a socialist system can be achieved by reforming capitalism. Socialism, in their view, can be reached through the existing political system by electing socialists to political office to implement economic reforms. [ citation needed ]

Revolutionary socialism holds that such methods will fail because the state ultimately acts in the interests of the capitalist class, and a socialist party will either be subsumed by the capitalist system or find itself unable to implement fundamental reforms. [ citation needed ] Revolutionary socialists believe that revolution is the only means to establish a new socio-economic system. Among revolutionary socialists, Leninists or Trotskyists advocate the creation of a democratic centralist revolutionary party to lead the working class in the overthrow of the capitalist state.

"Revolution" is not necessarily defined by revolutionary socialists as violent insurrection, but as a thorough and rapid change. [ 54 ]

Revolutionary syndicalists argue that revolutionary trade or industrial unions, as opposed to the state or workers' councils, are the only means to establish socialism. [ citation needed ]

Other theorists, such as Joseph Schumpeter , Thorstein Veblen and some of the Utopian socialists , believed that socialism would form naturally and spontaneously without, or with very limited, political action as the capitalist economic system decays into obsolescence. [ citation needed ]

[ edit ] Socialism from above or below

Socialism from above refers to the viewpoint that reforms or revolutions for socialism will come from, or be led by, higher status members of society who desire a more rational, efficient economic system. [ citation needed ] Claude Henri de Saint-Simon , and later evolutionary economist Thorstein Veblen , believed that socialism would be the result of innovative engineers, scientists and technicians who want to organise society and the economy in a rational fashion, instead of the working-class. [ citation needed ] Social democracy is often advocated by intellectuals and the middle-class, as well as the working class segments of the population. [ citation needed ] Socialism from below refers to the position that socialism can only come from, and be led by, popular solidarity and political action from the lower classes, such as the working class and lower-middle class. [ citation needed ] Proponents of socialism from below – such as syndicalists and orthodox Marxists — often liken socialism from above to elitism and/or Stalinism . [ citation needed ]

[ edit ] Allocation of resources

Resource allocation is the subject of intense debate between market socialists and proponents of economic planning . [ citation needed ]

Many socialists advocate de-centralized participatory planning , where economic decision-making is based on self-management and self-governance and a democratic manner from the bottom-up without any directing central authority. [ citation needed ] Leon Trotsky held the view that central planners, regardless of their intellectual capacity, operated without the input and participation of the millions of people who participate in the economy and understand/respond to local economic conditions; such central planners would be unable to effectively coordinate all economic activity. [ 55 ]

On the other hand, Leninists and some State socialists advocate directive planning where directives are passed down from higher planning authorities to enterprise managers, who in turn give orders to workers. [ citation needed ]

[ edit ] Equality of opportunity versus equality of outcome

Proponents of equality of opportunity advocate a society in which there are equal opportunities and life chances for all individuals to maximise their potentials and attain positions in society. This would be made possible by equal access to the necessities of life. [ citation needed ] Equality of outcome refers to a state where everyone receives equal amounts of rewards and an equal level of power in decision-making, with the belief that all roles in society are necessary and therefore none should be rewarded more than others. [ citation needed ] This view is shared by some communal utopian socialists and Marxists and social democrats. anarcho-communists . [ citation needed ]

[ editar ] Política

The major socialist political movements are described below. Independent socialist theorists, utopian socialist authors, and academic supporters of socialism may not be represented in these movements. Some political groups have called themselves socialist while holding views that some consider antithetical to socialism. The term socialist has also been used by some politicians on the political right as an epithet against certain individuals who do not consider themselves to be socialists, and against policies that are not considered socialist by their proponents.

There are many variations of socialism and as such there is no single definition encapsulating all of socialism. However there have been common elements identified by scholars. [ 56 ] Angelo S. Rappoport in his Dictionary of Socialism (1924) analysed forty definitions of socialism to conclude that common elements of socialism include: general criticisms of the social effects of private ownership and control of capital - as being the cause of poverty, low wages, unemployment, economic and social inequality, and a lack of economic security; a general view that the solution to these problems is a form of collective control over the means of production , distribution and exchange (the degree and means of control vary amongst socialist movements); agreement that the outcome of this collective control should be a society based upon social justice , including social equality, economic protection of people, and should provide a more satisfying life for most people. [ 57 ] Bhikhu Parekh in The Concepts of Socialism (1975) identifies four core principles of socialism and particularly socialist society: sociality, social responsibility, cooperation, and planning. [ 58 ] Michael Freeden in his study Ideologies and Political Theory (1996) states that all socialists share five themes: the first is that socialism posits that society is more than a mere collection of individuals; second, that it considers human welfare a desirable objective; third, that it considers humans by nature to be active and productive; fourth, it holds the belief of human equality; and fifth, that history is progressive and will create positive change on the condition that humans work to achieve such change. [ 58 ]

[ edit ] Anarchism

Anarchism features the political philosophy which holds the state to be undesirable, unnecessary, and harmful,[1][2], that the state cannot be used to establish a socialist economy and proposes a political alternative based on federated decentralised autonomous communities. It includes proponents of both individualist anarchism and social anarchism . Mutualists advocate free-market socialism, collectivist anarchists workers cooperatives and salaries based on the amount of time contributed to production, anarcho-communists advocate a direct transition from capitalism to libertarian communism and anarcho-syndicalists worker's direct action and the general strike .

[ edit ] Democratic socialism

Modern democratic socialism is a broad political movement that seeks to propagate the ideals of socialism within the context of a democratic system. Many democratic socialists support social democracy as a road to reform of the current system, but others support more revolutionary tactics to establish socialist goals. Conversely, modern social democracy emphasises a program of gradual legislative reform of capitalism in order to make it more equitable and humane, while the theoretical end goal of building a socialist society is either completely forgotten or redefined in a pro-capitalist way. The two movements are widely similar both in terminology and in ideology, although there are a few key differences.

Democratic socialism generally refers to any political movement that seeks to establish an economy based on economic democracy by and for the working class. Democratic socialists oppose democratic centralism and the revolutionary vanguard party of Leninism . Democratic socialism is difficult to define, and groups of scholars have radically different definitions for the term. Some definitions simply refer to all forms of socialism that follow an electoral, reformist or evolutionary path to socialism, rather than a revolutionary one. [ 59 ]

[ edit ] Leninism

Leninism promotes the creation of a vanguard party, led by professional revolutionaries, to lead the working class in the conquest of the state . They believe that socialism will not arise spontaneously through the natural decay of capitalism, and that workers by themselves are unable to organise and develop socialist consciousness, therefore requiring the leadership of a revolutionary vanguard. After taking power, Leninists seek to create a socialist state in which the working class would be in power, which they see as being essential for laying the foundations for a transitional withering of the state towards communism (Stateless society). Leninism branched into Marxism-Leninism , Trotskyism , Stalinism and Maoism .

[ edit ] Libertarian socialism

Libertarian socialism is a non-hierarchical, non-bureaucratic, stateless society without private property in the means of production . Libertarian socialists oppose all coercive forms of social organisation, promote free association in place of government, and oppose the coercive social relations of capitalism, such as wage labour . They oppose hierarchical leadership structures, such as vanguard parties, and most are opposed to using the state to create socialism . Currents within libertarian socialism include Marxist tendencies such as left communism , council communism and autonomism , as well as non-Marxist movements such as Left anarchism , Communalism , Participism , and Inclusive Democracy .

[ edit ] Social democracy

Traditional social democrats advocated the creation of socialism through political reforms by operating within the existing political system of capitalism. The social democratic movement sought to elect socialists to political office to implement reforms. The modern social democratic movement has abandoned the goal of moving toward a socialist economy and instead advocates for social reforms to improve capitalism, such as a welfare state and unemployment benefits. It is best demonstrated by the economic format which has been used in Sweden, Denmark, Norway, and Finland in the past few decades. [ 60 ] This approach been called the Nordic model .

[ edit ] Syndicalism

Syndicalism is a social movement that operates through industrial trade unions and rejects state socialism , or the use of the state to build socialism. Syndicalists advocate a socialist economy based on federated unions or syndicates of workers who own and manage the means of production.

[ editar ] História

The term socialism is attributed to Pierre Leroux , [ 61 ] and to Marie Roch Louis Reybaud ; and in Britain to Robert Owen in 1827, father of the cooperative movement . [ 62 ] [ 63 ] Socialist models and ideas espousing common or public ownership have existed since antiquity. Mazdak , a Persian communal proto-socialist, [ 64 ] instituted communal possessions and advocated the public good. And it has been claimed, though controversially, that there were elements of socialist thought in the politics of classical Greek philosophers Plato [ 65 ] and Aristotle . [ 66 ]

The first advocates of socialism favoured social levelling in order to create a meritocratic or technocratic society based upon individual talent. Count Henri de Saint-Simon is regarded as the first individual to coin the term socialism . [ 67 ] Saint-Simon was fascinated by the enormous potential of science and technology and advocated a socialist society that would eliminate the disorderly aspects of capitalism and would be based upon equal opportunities. [ 68 ] [ unreliable source? ] He advocated the creation of a society in which each person was ranked according to his or her capacities and rewarded according to his or her work. [ 67 ] The key focus of Simon's socialism was on administrative efficiency and industrialism, and a belief that science was the key to progress. [ 69 ]

Charles Fourier , influential early French socialist thinker

This was accompanied by a desire to implement a rationally organised economy based on planning and geared towards large-scale scientific and material progress, [ 67 ] and thus embodied a desire for a more directed or planned economy . Other early socialist thinkers, such as Thomas Hodgkin and Charles Hall, based their ideas on David Ricardo 's economic theories. They reasoned that the equilibrium value of commodities approximated to prices charged by the producer when those commodities were in elastic supply, and that these producer prices corresponded to the embodied labour – the cost of the labour (essentially the wages paid) that was required to produce the commodities. The Ricardian socialists viewed profit, interest and rent as deductions from this exchange-value. [ 70 ]

West European social critics, including Robert Owen , Charles Fourier , Pierre-Joseph Proudhon , Louis Blanc , Charles Hall and Saint-Simon , were the first modern socialists who criticised the excessive poverty and inequality of the Industrial Revolution . They advocated reform, with some such as Robert Owen advocating the transformation of society to small communities without private property. Robert Owen's contribution to modern socialism was his understanding that actions and characteristics of individuals were largely determined by the social environment they were raised in and exposed to. [ 69 ] On the other hand Charles Fourier advocated phalansteres which were communities that respected individual desires (incluiding sexual preferences), affinities and creativity and saw that work has to be made enjoyable for people. [ 71 ] The ideas of Owen and Fourier were tried in practice in numerous intentional communities around Europe and the American continent in the mid-19th century.

Linguistically, the contemporary connotation of the words socialism and communism accorded with the adherents' and opponents' cultural attitude towards religion. In Christian Europe, of the two, communism was believed the atheist way of life. In Protestant England, the word communism was too culturally and aurally close to the Roman Catholic communion rite , hence English atheists denoted themselves socialists. [ 72 ]

Friedrich Engels argued that in 1848, at the time when the Communist Manifesto was published, "socialism was respectable on the continent, while communism was not." The Owenites in England and the Fourierists in France were considered "respectable" socialists, while working-class movements that "proclaimed the necessity of total social change" denoted themselves communists. This latter branch of socialism produced the communist work of Étienne Cabet in France and Wilhelm Weitling in Germany. [ 73 ]

[ editar ] Etimologia

The term "socialism" was created by Henri de Saint-Simon, a founder of utopian socialism. The term "socialism" was created to contrast against the liberal doctrine of " individualism ". [ 74 ] The original socialists condemned liberal individualism as failing to address social concerns of poverty, social oppression, and gross inequality of wealth. [ 74 ] They viewed liberal individualism as degenerating society into supporting selfish egoism and that harmed community life through promoting a society based on competition. [ 74 ] They presented socialism as an alternative to liberal individualism, that advocated a society based on cooperation. [ 74 ]

[ edit ] First International and Second International

Mikhail Bakunin speaking to members of the IWA at the Basel Congress in 1869

The International Workingmen's Association (IWA), also known as the First International, was founded in London in 1864. The IWA held a preliminary conference in 1865, and had its first congress at Geneva in 1866. Due to the wide variety of philosophies present in the First International, there was conflict from the start. The first objections to Marx's came from the Mutualists who opposed communism and statism . However, shortly after Mikhail Bakunin and his followers (called Collectivists while in the International) joined in 1868, the First International became polarised into two camps, with Marx and Bakunin as their respective figureheads [ 75 ] The clearest differences between the groups emerged over their proposed strategies for achieving their visions of socialism. The First International became the first major international forum for the promulgation of socialist ideas.

As the ideas of Marx and Engels took on flesh, particularly in central Europe, socialists sought to unite in an international organisation. In 1889, on the centennial of the French Revolution of 1789, the Second International was founded, with 384 delegates from 20 countries representing about 300 labour and socialist organisations. [ 76 ] It was termed the "Socialist International" and Engels was elected honorary president at the third congress in 1893. Anarchists were ejected and not allowed in mainly because of the pressure from marxists. [ 77 ]

[ edit ] Revolutions of 1917–1936

Leon Trotsky , Vladimir Lenin , and Lev Kamenev at the Second Communist Party Congress, 1919.
" If Socialism can only be realized when the intellectual development of all the people permits it, then we shall not see Socialism for at least five hundred years. "

Vladimir Lenin , November 1917 [ 78 ]

By 1917, the patriotism of World War I changed into political radicalism in most of Europe, the United States , and Australia. In February 1917, revolution exploded in Russia . Workers, soldiers and peasants established soviets (councils), the monarchy fell, and a provisional government convoked pending the election of a constituent assembly .

In April of that year, Vladimir Lenin arrived in Russia from Switzerland, calling for "All power to the soviets." In October, his party, the Bolsheviks , won support of most soviets at the second All-Russian Congress of Soviets , while he and Leon Trotsky simultaneously led the October Revolution . As a matter of political pragmatism, Lenin reversed Marx's order of economics over politics, allowing for a political revolution led by a vanguard party of professional revolutionaries rather than a spontaneous establishment of socialist institutions led by a spontaneous uprising of the working class as predicted by Karl Marx . [ 79 ] On 25 January 1918, at the Petrograd Soviet , Lenin declared "Long live the world socialist revolution!" [ 80 ] He proposed an immediate armistice on all fronts, and transferred the land of the landed proprietors, the crown and the monasteries to the peasant committees without compensation. [ 81 ]

On 26 January 1918, the day after assuming executive power, Lenin wrote Draft Regulations on Workers' Control , which granted workers control of businesses with more than five workers and office employees, and access to all books, documents and stocks, and whose decisions were to be "binding upon the owners of the enterprises". [ 82 ] Governing through the elected soviets, and in alliance with the peasant-based Left Socialist-Revolutionaries , the Bolshevik government began nationalising banks, industry, and disavowed the national debts of the deposed Romanov royal régime. It sued for peace , withdrawing from World War I, and convoked a Constituent Assembly in which the peasant Socialist-Revolutionary Party (SR) won a majority. [ 83 ]

The Constituent Assembly elected Socialist-Revolutionary leader Victor Chernov President of a Russian republic, but rejected the Bolshevik proposal that it endorse the Soviet decrees on land, peace and workers' control, and acknowledge the power of the Soviets of Workers', Soldiers' and Peasants' Deputies. The next day, the Bolsheviks declared that the assembly was elected on outdated party lists, [ 84 ] and the All-Russian Central Executive Committee of the Soviets dissolved it. [ 85 ] [ 86 ]

The Bolshevik Russian Revolution of January 1918 engendered Communist parties worldwide, and their concomitant revolutions of 1917-23 . Few Communists doubted that the Russian success of socialism depended upon successful, working-class socialist revolutions in developed capitalist countries. [ 87 ] [ 88 ] In 1919, Lenin and Trotsky organised the world's Communist parties into a new international association of workers – the Communist International , (Comintern), also called the Third International.

Rosa Luxemburg , prominent Marxist revolutionary, martyr and leader of the German Spartacist uprising , 1919.

By 1920, the Red Army , under its commander Trotsky, had largely defeated the royalist White Armies. In 1921, War Communism was ended and, under the New Economic Policy (NEP), private ownership was allowed for small and medium peasant enterprises. While industry remained largely state-controlled, Lenin acknowledged that the NEP was a necessary capitalist measure for a country unripe for socialism. Profiteering returned in the form of "NEP men" and rich peasants ( Kulaks ) gained power in the countryside. [ 89 ]

In 1922, the fourth congress of the Communist International took up the policy of the United Front , urging Communists to work with rank and file Social Democrats while remaining critical of their leaders, whom they criticised for betraying the working class by supporting the war efforts of their respective capitalist classes. For their part, the social democrats pointed to the dislocation caused by revolution, and later, the growing authoritarianism of the Communist Parties. When the Communist Party of Great Britain applied to affiliate to the Labour Party in 1920 it was turned down.

In 1923, on seeing the Soviet State's growing coercive power, the dying Lenin said Russia had reverted to "a bourgeois tsarist machine... barely varnished with socialism." [ 90 ] After Lenin's death in January 1924, the Communist Party of the Soviet Union – then increasingly under the control of Joseph Stalin – rejected the theory that socialism could not be built solely in the Soviet Union, in favour of the concept of Socialism in One Country . Despite the marginalised Left Opposition 's demand for the restoration of Soviet democracy, Stalin developed a bureaucratic, authoritarian government, that was condemned by democratic socialists, anarchists and Trotskyists for undermining the initial socialist ideals of the Bolshevik Russian Revolution. [ 91 ] [ 92 ] [ self-published source? ] [ unreliable source? ]

The Russian Revolution of October 1917 brought about the definitive ideological division between Communists as denoted with a capital "?" on the one hand and other communist and socialist trends such as anarcho-communists and social democrats, on the other. The Left Opposition in the Soviet Union gave rise to Trotskyism which was to remain isolated and insignificant for another fifty years, except in Sri Lanka where Trotskyism gained the majority and the pro-Moscow wing was expelled from the Communist Party.

[ edit ] After World War II

Joseph Stalin , leader of the Soviet Union from 1922 to 1953.

In 1951, British Health Minister Aneurin Bevan expressed the view that, "It is probably true that Western Europe would have gone socialist after the war if Soviet behaviour had not given it too grim a visage. Soviet Communism and Socialism are not yet sufficiently distinguished in many minds." [ 93 ]

In 1951, the Socialist International was re-founded by the European social democratic parties. It declared: "Communism has split the International Labour Movement and has set back the realisation of Socialism in many countries for decades... Communism falsely claims a share in the Socialist tradition. In fact it has distorted that tradition beyond recognition. It has built up a rigid theology which is incompatible with the critical spirit of Marxism." [ 94 ]

In the postwar years, socialism became increasingly influential throughout the so-called Third World . Countries in Africa, Asia, and Latin America frequently nationalised industries held by foreign owners. The Soviet Union had become a superpower through its adoption of a planned economy, albeit at enormous human cost. This achievement seemed hugely impressive from the outside, and convinced many nationalists in the former colonies, not necessarily communists or even socialists, of the virtues of state planning and state-guided models of social development. This was later to have important consequences in countries like China, India and Egypt, which tried to import some aspects of the Soviet model. [ citation needed ]

[ edit ] Union of Soviet Socialist Republics

Prior to its dissolution in 1991, the USSR had the second largest economy in the world after the United States. [ 95 ] The economy of the Soviet Union was the modern world's first centrally-planned economy. It was based on a system of state ownership of industry managed through Gosplan (the State Planning Commission), Gosbank (the State Bank) and the Gossnab (State Commission for Materials and Equipment Supply). Economic planning was conducted through a series of Five-Year Plans . The emphasis was put on a very fast development of heavy industry and the nation became one of the world's top manufacturers of a large number of basic and heavy industrial products, but it lagged behind in the output of light industrial production and consumer durables.

As the Soviet economy grew more complex, it required more and more complex disaggregation of control figures (plan targets) and factory inputs. As it required more communication between the enterprises and the planning ministries, and as the number of enterprises, trusts, and ministries multiplied, the Soviet economy started stagnating. The Soviet economy was increasingly sluggish when it came to responding to change, adapting cost?saving technologies, and providing incentives at all levels to improve growth, productivity and efficiency.

Most information in the Soviet economy flowed from the top down and economic planning was often done based on faulty or outdated information, particularly in sectors with large numbers of consumers. As a result, some goods tended to be under-produced, leading to shortages, while other goods were overproduced and accumulated in storage. Some factories developed a system of barter and either exchanged or shared raw materials and parts, while consumers developed a black market for goods that were particularly sought after but constantly under-produced.

Conceding the weaknesses of their past approaches in solving new problems, the leaders of the late 1980s, headed by Mikhail Gorbachev , were seeking to mould a program of economic reform to galvanise the economy. However, by 1990 the Soviet government had lost control over economic conditions. Government spending increased sharply as an increasing number of unprofitable enterprises required state support and consumer price subsidies to continue operations.

The industrial production system in the Soviet Union suffered a political and economic collapse in 1991, after which two transitions occurred: first from centrally planned to market-based economies, and secondly, from state-ownership to private-ownership of economic enterprises. With the collapse of the Soviet Union, the economic integration of the Soviet republics was dissolved, and overall industrial activity declined substantially. [ 96 ] A lasting legacy remains in the physical infrastructure created during decades of combined industrial production practices.

[ edit ] Social democrats in power

The Australian Labor Party , the first social democratic labour party in the world, was formed in 1891. In 1904, Australians elected the first Labor Party prime minister in the world: Chris Watson. In 1945, the British Labour Party , led by Clement Attlee , was elected to office based upon a radical socialist programme. Social Democratic parties dominated post-war politics in countries such as France, Italy, Czechoslovakia, Belgium and Norway. In Sweden, the Social Democratic Party held power from 1936 to 1976, 1982 to 1991, and 1994 to 2006. At one point, France claimed to be the world's most state-controlled capitalist country. The nationalised public utilities included Charbonnages de France (CDF), Electricité de France (EDF), Gaz de France (GDF), Air France, Banque de France, and Régie Nationale des Usines Renault. [ 97 ] Post-World War II social democratic governments introduced social reform and wealth redistribution via state welfare and taxation.

[ editar ] Reino Unido
Clement Attlee , UK Prime Minister, Labour Party government, 1945–51.

In the UK, the Labour Party was influenced by the British social reformer William Beveridge , who had identified five "Giant Evils" afflicting the working class of the pre-war period: "want" (poverty), disease, "ignorance" (lack of access to education), "squalor" (poor housing), and "idleness" (unemployment). [ 98 ] Unemployment benefits , national insurance and state pensions were introduced by the 1945 Labour government. Aneurin Bevan , who had introduced the Labour Party's National Health Service in 1948, criticised the Attlee government for not progressing further, demanding economic planning and criticising the implementation of nationalisation for not empowering the workers with democratic control of operations.

The UK Labour Government nationalised major public utilities such as mines, gas, coal, electricity, rail, iron, steel, and the Bank of England. British Petroleum, privatised in 1987, was officially nationalised in 1951, [ 99 ] and there was further government intervention during the 1974–79 Labour Government [ 100 ] Anthony Crosland said that in 1956, 25 per cent of British industry was nationalised, and that public employees, including those in nationalised industries, constituted a similar percentage of the country's total employed population. [ 101 ] The Labour government, however, did not seek to end capitalism, and the "government had not the smallest intention of bringing in the 'common ownership of the means of production, distribution, and exchange'", [ 102 ] Labour re-nationalised steel (1967, British Steel) after the Conservatives denationalised it, and nationalised car production (1976, British Leyland). [ 103 ] In 1977, major aircraft companies and shipbuilding were nationalised.

The National Health Service provided taxpayer-funded health care to everyone, free at the point of service. [ 104 ] Working-class housing was provided in council housing estates, and university education became available via a school grant system. Ellen Wilkinson , Minister for Education, introduced taxpayer-funded milk in schools, saying, in a 1946 Labour Party conference: "Free milk will be provided in Hoxton and Shoreditch , in Eton and Harrow . What more social equality can you have than that?" Clement Attlee's biographer argued that this policy "contributed enormously to the defeat of childhood illnesses resulting from bad diet. Generations of poor children grew up stronger and healthier, because of this one, small, and inexpensive act of generosity, by the Attlee government". [ 105 ]

[ edit ] The "Nordic model"

The Nordic model refers to the economic and social models of the Nordic countries ( Denmark , Iceland , Norway , Sweden and Finland ). This particular adaptation of the mixed market economy is characterised by more generous welfare states (relative to other developed countries), which are aimed specifically at enhancing individual autonomy, ensuring the universal provision of basic human rights and stabilising the economy. It is distinguished from other welfare states with similar goals by its emphasis on maximising labour force participation, promoting gender equality, egalitarian and extensive benefit levels, large magnitude of redistribution, and liberal use of expansionary fiscal policy. [ 106 ] This has included high degrees of labour union membership. In 2008, labour union density was 67.5% in Finland, 67.6% in Denmark, and 68.3% in Sweden. In comparison, union membership was 11.9% in the United States and 7.7% in France. [ 107 ] The Nordic Model, however, is not a single model with specific components or rules; each of the Nordic countries has its own economic and social models, sometimes with large differences from its neighbours.

[ edit ] Social democrats adopt free market policies

Many social democratic parties, particularly after the Cold war, adopted neoliberal -based market policies that include privatisation , liberalisation , deregulation and financialisation ; resulting in the abandonment of pursuing the development of moderate socialism in favour of market liberalism . Despite the name, these pro-capitalist policies are radically different from the many non-capitalist free-market socialist theories that have existed throughout history.

In 1959, the German Social Democratic Party adopted the Godesberg Program , rejecting class struggle and Marxism. In 1980, with the rise of conservative neoliberal politicians such as Ronald Reagan in the US, Margaret Thatcher in Britain, and Brian Mulroney in Canada, the Western welfare state was attacked from within. Monetarists and neoliberalism attacked social welfare systems as impediments to private entrepreneurship at public expense.

In the 1980s and 1990s, western European socialists were pressured to reconcile their socialist economic programmes with a free-market-based communal European economy. In the UK, the Labour Party leader Neil Kinnock made a passionate and public attack against the party's Militant Tendency at a Labour Party conference, and repudiated the demands of the defeated striking miners after the 1984–1985 strike against pit closures . In 1989, at Stockholm, the 18th Congress of the Socialist International adopted a new Declaration of Principles , saying:

Democratic socialism is an international movement for freedom, social justice, and solidarity. Its goal is to achieve a peaceful world where these basic values can be enhanced and where each individual can live a meaningful life with the full development of his or her personality and talents, and with the guarantee of human and civil rights in a democratic framework of society . [ 108 ]

In the 1990s, released from the Left's pressure, the British Labour Party, under Tony Blair , posited policies based upon the free market economy to deliver public services via private contractors. In 1995, the Labour Party re-defined its stance on socialism by re-wording clause IV of its constitution, effectively rejecting socialism by removing any and all references to public, direct worker or municipal ownership of the means of production. In 1995, the British Labour Party revised its political aims: "The Labour Party is a democratic socialist party. It believes that, by the strength of our common endeavour we achieve more than we achieve alone, so as to create, for each of us, the means to realise our true potential, and, for all of us, a community in which power, wealth, and opportunity are in the hands of the many, not the few." [ 109 ]

The objectives of the Party of European Socialists , the European Parliament's socialist bloc, are now "to pursue international aims in respect of the principles on which the European Union is based, namely principles of freedom, equality, solidarity, democracy, respect of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms, and respect for the Rule of Law." As a result, today, the rallying cry of the French Revolution – "Egalité, Liberté, Fraternité" – which overthrew absolutism and ushered industrialisation into French society, are promoted as essential socialist values. [ 110 ]

[ edit ] Early 2000s

Those who championed socialism in its various Marxist and class struggle forms sought out other arenas than the parties of social democracy at the turn of the 21st century. Anti-capitalism and anti-globalization movements rose to prominence particularly through events such as the opposition to the WTO meeting of 1999 in Seattle. Socialist-inspired groups played an important role in these new movements, which nevertheless embraced much broader layers of the population, and were championed by figures such as Noam Chomsky . The 2003 invasion of Iraq led to a significant anti-war movement in which socialists argued their case.

The Financial crisis of 2007–2010 led to mainstream discussions as to whether "Marx was right". [ 111 ] [ 112 ] Time magazine ran an article 'Rethinking Marx' and put Karl Marx on the cover of its European edition in a special for the 28 January 2009 Davos meeting . [ 113 ] [ 114 ] A Globescan BBC poll on the twentieth anniversary of the fall of the Berlin Wall (2009) found that 23% of respondents believe capitalism is "fatally flawed and a different economic system is needed", with that figure rising to over 40% of the population in France; while a majority of respondents including over 50% of Americans believe capitalism "has problems that can be addressed through regulation and reform". Of the 27 countries polled, majorities in 22 of them expressed support for governments to distribute wealth more evenly. [ 115 ]

[ editar ] África

Kwame Nkrumah , the first President of Ghana and theorist of African socialism on a soviet postage stamp

African socialism has been and continues to be a major ideology around the continent. Julius Nyerere was inspired by Fabian socialist ideals. [ 116 ] He was a firm believer in rural Africans and their traditions and ujamaa , a system of collectivisation that according to Nyerere was present before European imperialism. Essentially he believed Africans were already socialists. Other African socialists include Jomo Kenyatta , Kenneth Kaunda , and Kwame Nkrumah . Fela Kuti was inspired by socialism and called for a democratic African republic. In South Africa the African National Congress (ANC) abandoned its partial socialist allegiances after taking power, and followed a standard neoliberal route. From 2005 through to 2007, the country was wracked by many thousands of protests from poor communities. One of these gave rise to a mass movement of shack dwellers, Abahlali baseMjondolo that, despite major police suppression, continues to advocate for popular people's planning and against the creation of a market economy in land and housing. Today many African countries have been accused of being exploited under neoliberal economics. [ 117 ]

[ edit ] Asia

The People's Republic of China, North Korea, Laos and Vietnam are Asian countries remaining from the wave of Marxism-Leninist implemented socialism in the 20th century. States with socialist economies have largely moved away from centralised economic planning in the 21st century, placing a greater emphasis on markets. Forms include the Chinese socialist market economy and the Vietnamese socialist-oriented market economy . They utilise state-owned corporate management models as opposed to modelling socialist enterprise on traditional management styles employed by government agencies.

In the People's Republic of China, the Chinese Communist Party has led a transition from the command economy of the Mao period to an economic program they term the socialist market economy or " socialism with Chinese characteristics ". Under Deng Xiaoping , the leadership of China embarked upon a programme of market-based reform that was more sweeping than had been Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev's perestroika program of the late 1980s. Deng's programme, however, maintained state ownership rights over land, state or cooperative ownership of much of the heavy industrial and manufacturing sectors and state influence in the banking and financial sectors.

Elsewhere in Asia, some elected socialist parties and communist parties remain prominent, particularly in India and Nepal. The Communist Party of Nepal in particular calls for multi-party democracy, social equality, and economic prosperity. [ 118 ] In Singapore, a majority of the GDP is still generated from the state sector comprising government-linked companies. [ 119 ] In Japan, there has been a resurgent interest in the Japanese Communist Party among workers and youth. [ 120 ] [ 121 ] In Malaysia, the Socialist Party of Malaysia got its first Member of Parliament, Dr. Jeyakumar Devaraj , after the 2008 general election .

[ editar ] Europa

In Europe, the socialist Left Party in Germany grew in popularity [ 122 ] due to dissatisfaction with the increasingly neoliberal policies of the SPD, becoming the fourth biggest party in parliament in the general election on 27 September 2009. [ 123 ] Communist candidate Dimitris Christofias won a crucial presidential runoff in Cyprus, defeating his conservative rival with a majority of 53%. [ 124 ] In Greece, in the general election on 4 October 2009, the Panhellenic Socialist Movement (PASOK) won the elections with 43.92% of the votes, the Communist KKE got 7.5% and the new Socialist grouping, ( Syriza or "Coalition of the Radical Left"), won 4.6% or 361,000 votes. [ 125 ]

In Ireland, in the 2009 European election , Joe Higgins of the Socialist Party took one of three seats in the capital Dublin European constituency . In Denmark, the Socialist People's Party (SF or Socialist Party for short) more than doubled its parliamentary representation to 23 seats from 11, making it the fourth largest party. [ 126 ] In 2011, the socialist parties of Social Democrats , Socialist People's Party and the Danish Social Liberal Part formed government, after a slight victory over the liberal parties. They were led by Helle Thorning-Schmidt, and had the Red-Green Alliance as a supporting party.

In the UK, the National Union of Rail, Maritime and Transport Workers put forward a slate of candidates in the 2009 European Parliament elections under the banner of No to the EU – Yes to Democracy , a broad left-wing alter-globalisation coalition involving socialist groups such as the Socialist Party , aiming to offer an alternative to the "anti-foreigner" and pro-business policies of the UK Independence Party . [ 127 ] [ 128 ] [ 129 ] In the following May 2010 UK general election, the Trade Unionist and Socialist Coalition , launched in January 2010 [ 130 ] and backed by Bob Crow, the leader of the National Union of Rail, Maritime and Transport Workers union (RMT), other union leaders and the Socialist Party among other socialist groups, stood against Labour in 40 constituencies. [ 131 ] [ 132 ] The Trade Unionist and Socialist Coalition plans to contest the 2011 elections, having gained the endorsement of the RMT June 2010 conference. [ 133 ]

In France, the Revolutionary Communist League (LCR) candidate in the 2007 presidential election, Olivier Besancenot , received 1,498,581 votes, 4.08%, double that of the Communist candidate. [ 134 ] The LCR abolished itself in 2009 to initiate a broad anti-capitalist party, the New Anticapitalist Party , whose stated aim is to "build a new socialist, democratic perspective for the twenty-first century". [ 135 ]

[ edit ] Latin America

Hugo Chávez , president of Venezuela.
"Every factory must be a school to educate, like Che Guevara said, to produce not only briquettes, steel, and aluminum, but also, above all, the new man and woman, the new society, the socialist society."
Hugo Chávez , at a May 2009 socialist transformation workshop [ 136 ]

Venezuelan President Hugo Chávez , Nicaraguan President Daniel Ortega , Bolivian President Evo Morales , and Ecuadorian president Rafael Correa refer to their political programmes as socialist. Chávez has adopted the term socialism of the 21st century . After winning re-election in December 2006, Chávez said, "Now more than ever, I am obliged to move Venezuela's path towards socialism." [ 137 ]

" Pink tide " is a term being used in contemporary 21st century political analysis in the media and elsewhere to describe the perception that Leftist ideology in general, and Left-wing politics in particular, are increasingly influential in Latin America. [ 138 ] [ 139 ] [ 140 ]

[ edit ] North America

In Canada, the Co-operative Commonwealth Federation , the precursor to the New Democratic Party , had some significant success in provincial politics. In 1944, the Saskatchewan CCF formed the first socialist government in North America. On the federal level, the social democratic New Democratic Party now forms the Official Opposition (Canada) after winning 102/308 seats (up from 37) in the 2011 Canadian federal election .

Socialist parties in the United States reached their zenith in the early 20th century, but currently active parties and organisations include the Socialist Party USA , the Socialist Workers Party and the Democratic Socialists of America , the latter having approximately 10,000 members. [ 141 ]

[ edit ] Criticism of socialism

Economic liberals , pro-capitalist libertarians and classical liberals see private property of the means of production and the market exchange as natural entities or moral rights, which are central to their conceptions of freedom and liberty, and thus perceive public ownership of the means of production, cooperatives and economic planning as infringements upon liberty. Some of the primary criticisms of socialism are distorted or absent price signals , [ 142 ] [ 143 ] reduced incentives, [ 144 ] [ 145 ] [ 146 ] reduced prosperity, [ 147 ] [ 148 ] feasibility, [ 142 ] [ 143 ] [ 149 ] and its social and political effects. [ 150 ] [ 151 ] [ 152 ] [ 153 ] [ 154 ] [ 155 ] [ self-published source? ] [ unreliable source? ]

Critics from the neoclassical school of economics criticise state-ownership and centralisation of capital on the grounds that there is a lack of incentive in state institutions to act on information as efficiently as capitalist firms do because they lack hard budget constraints , resulting in reduced overall economic welfare for society. [ 156 ] Economists of the Austrian school argue that socialist systems based on economic planning are unfeasible because they lack the information to perform economic calculation in the first place, due to a lack of price signals and a free price system , which they argue are required for rational economic calculation. [ 157 ]

[ editar ] Ver também


[ editar ] Referências

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